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Effect of Acetylated Retrograded Starch (Resistant Starch RS4) On the Nutritional Value and Microstructure of the Crumb (SEM) of Wheat Bread

Agata Wojciechowicz-Budzisz, Zygmunt Gil, Radoslaw Spychaj, Anna Czaja, Ewa Pejcz, Anna Czubaszek and Miroslaw Zmijewski

The objective of this study was to evaluate nutritional value and the microstructure of crumb of bread baked with three types of wheat flour with acetylated retrograded resistant starch preparation (RS4) obtained in the laboratory. The research material was three wheat flour type 550, 750 and 2000 incorporated with acetylated retrograded starch obtained in the laboratory with a degree of substitution DS = 0,16. Content of RS4 preparations in the achieved flour samples was 10, 20, 30and 40%. The control sample was wheat flour without additives (0%). The study assessed the nutritional value of bread on the basis of energy value, the total amount of digested starch (TDS) and total dietary fiber (TDF). Also carried pictures of bread crumb investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Breads baked with whole meal flour type 2000 were characterized by higher energy than breads made from flour lower type. Increasing the type of wheat flour resulted in a gradual decrease in the total amount of digested starch (TDS) in the breads. The consequence of increasing the share of resistant starch in the samples was a gradual increase in total dietary fiber (TDF). With the increase in the share of resistant starch in the samples were reduced energy value, and the total amount of digested starch (TDS). In the photograph of the control bread crumb made using a scanning electron microscope is shown forming the gluten network of pores of medium and large.