Research Article - (2018) Volume 6, Issue 3

Community Policing (CP): Challenges on Preventing Crime and Human Security in Bangladesh

Islam S*
Department of Public Administration, Selçuk University, Selçuklu, Konya, Turkey
*Corresponding Author: Islam S, Department of Public Administration, Selçuk University, Selçuklu, Konya, Turkey, Tel: +903322410112 Email:

Abstract

The study contains about Community Policing (CP) that is an organizational strategy and the way of philosophical thoughts allows working together between Police and Community to prevent and solve the problems of crime and offers human security. It is built on two prime features, firstly; it requires the transformation of methods and practice of the police, and secondly; taking steps to establish a relationship between the police and the public. Through the Community Policing philosophy, the ultimate goal is the creation of a professional, representative, responsive, and accountable institution that works with the public. Crime casts fear into the hearts from all walks of life and prevents them from taking their rightful place in the development and growth of our country. The rights and freedoms which the constitution entrenches are threatened every time a citizen becomes a victim of crime. In Bangladesh, Police is principally a reactive force with a philosophy of public control rather than community service. The emphasis is on solving crime after it occurs, rather than preventing it from happening in the first place. It can largely be ascribed to a lack of awareness, monitoring, and understanding, but also to a lack of leadership on the part of various stakeholders, including the police. There has been a poor evaluation by Bangladesh Police to analyze and treat the underpinning causes of crimes. Because of this lacking, and the lack of police guidelines or policy on crime prevention, police are unable to provide advice to the public on what preventative actions they can take. In fact, police themselves lack training and experience in crime prevention and community safety. The study focuses on the nuts and bolts of the performance of community policing. How it is working, what are the drawbacks of it, what the contributions of it in preventing crime and what can be strategies to make them effective and efficient to prevent crime while respecting human security and ensuring a safer and more secure Bangladesh permitting its citizens to live in an era of peace, security and justice.

Keywords: Community policing (CP); Community; Police; Security; Crime; Public; Bangladesh

Introduction

Community policing, in Bangladesh police, is an organization with the aims of promoting community, government, and police partnerships, proactive problem solving, and community engagement to address the causes of crime, fear of crime and community issues. Day after day, by the passage of time, Policing in different countries got a lot of changes and reforms to cope with the changes of the society’s values and structure, diversity of society, taste and attitude of the people and combat terrorist along with the new dimension of crime. But there is a common subject which has been picked up by police all over the world-that is “Community Policing”. It is recognized by all that without the spontaneous cooperation of the community and partnership with the police alone cannot ensure the safety of the people and address the issues of the community to the satisfaction of the people of the community. Being motivated to this philosophy police emphasize community-based policing under the community policing umbrella. But community policing is run in different ways in different countries like UK, USA, Singapore, and India. There is considerable emphasis on solving crime after it occurs, rather than preventing it from happening in the first place. This can largely be attributed to a lack of awareness and understanding, but also to a lack of leadership on the part of various stakeholders, including the police. There has been a limited assessment by Bangladesh Police to analyze and treat the underpinning causes of crimes. Because of this lack of analysis, and the lack of police guidelines or policy on crime prevention, police are unable to provide advice to the public on what preventative actions they can take. In fact, police themselves lack training and experience in crime prevention and community safety.

Most Police premises do not have an inviting appearance and indeed people sometimes receive an indifferent or hostile reception when they attend at a police station. Many police present with a siege mentality in which their Thana is like a military installation. As a consequence, police become desensitized and remain isolated from the community. Some 90,000 or approximately 75% of police officers in Bangladesh are poorly trained and poorly equipped. Constables account for more 75% of Thana personnel; they have poor education standards and have limited authority. In fact, the outdated PRB provision states ‘They [the Constables] are not intended to perform duties requiring the exercise of much judgment and discretion’ Regulation 208(a) seems to reflect the way in which a large number of Constables are actually used [1,2].

Literature Review

A conceptualization

Community is defined as a group of people living in an area under the same government. In other words, a social group having a common interest and common culture living in a specific geographic area is termed as a community. As a whole, a society or the public of an area may be called community. The community may cover a vast area and have thousands of individuals and organizations. Police are those who are the members of a government organization which is responsible for enforcing the law and maintaining peace and order, prevention and detection of crime. The Police are one of the major components of the criminal justice system.

McCarthy, a community policing officer for the Braintree police department, says, “Community Policing is a collaborative effort between the police and the community that identifies problems of crime and disorder and engages the community in the way of solutions. It is founded on close and mutually beneficial ties between police and community members [3].

There are some sorts of articles, reports, and books from prominent writers, journals, newspapers, and organizations about this issue. But the study did not find any direct research works related to this topic. But, there is no specific one which deals with this issue. However, some of this literature is reviewed here. “Evans, David J. Fyfe Nicholas R. and Herbert David T Crime, Policing and Place; Essays in environmental criminology” [4]. There are three parts and sixteen chapters in this book. Part I is related to methodologies and sources. Part II is about crime and policing, spatial pattern and social processes. Part III emphasizes on crime and policing as well as policy perspectives. Analyzing many cases from Britain, Europe, Canada and America, the writer explains the significance of spatial patterns of crime and policing, the processes which underlie the causes and consequences of crime and the success of recent policies for preventing crime and building a good relationship between police and community.

“Fielding, Nigel [5] Community Policing; Clarendon Press. Oxford”- There are ten chapters in this book. The author discussed sociolegal perspectives of Community Policing, police, community, culture and differentiating community policing and showed contemporary community policing practices. Author has attempted to analyze the field work and the community policing, narrates how to maintain the first contract as well as discussed the tactics of CP. In concluding of the book the author portrays some contemporary models of community policing. “Hills, Alice [6] Policing Africa: Internal security and the limits of liberalization; Lynne Rienner Publishers”- The writer attempts to review the policing in Sub-Saharan Africa which can improve our understanding of the broader issues associated with state-society relation, especially with regard to security. The writer also emphasizes institutional incapacity of the African state to fulfill the expectation for liberal political development so prevalent in the 1990s. “Tahera Yasmin, Christine Brendel, Christine Mialkas [7] Building Gender-Responsive Community-Based Policing in Bangladesh”- It provides a model, which enables under-empowered victims, often women, girls and the poor, with a voice to express their views. It highlights the level of genderbased violence and can offer solutions. This paper provides a discourse of the above, drawn from Community Policing initiatives in Nepal and Bangladesh where it is being developed. This paper gives a brief background of the roots of policing in South Asia and compares this to British Policing.

“Police Reform Programme, 2009” [1] the police are the public and the public are the police; the police being only members of the public who are paid to give full concentration on their duties which are necessary for every people in the interest’s welfare and existence of the community. “Huda, Mohammad Nurul [8]. Bangladesh Police Issues and Challenges. UPL”-In this book Huda attempts to highlight some fundamental segments of law enforcement agencies as well as the responsible factors and the required intervention to adapt them with the time. He further shows the experiments of RAB with their enforcement, rationality, and reality. A strong point of this book is that it succeeds in coherently showcasing the various aspects of the community policing as well as its many advantages. He argues that the concept of community policing is based on the belief that conflict resolution is a long-term matter in which notions of equity, fairness and community justice must be developed by all groups involved.

“Razzak, Abdur [9] community policing philosophy principles and evaluation”- It is one of the basic books about the community policing as it includes all the related issues of community policing including its philosophy, principles, organizational structure, significance as well as the responsibility of public representatives and politicians in implementing the community policing. After describing the activities of community policing in Bangladesh, towards the end, it proposes conclusions in the direction of policy prescriptions. “Hoque, Shahidul [10] Community Policing: Concept, Aims, and Objectives”- In this book the author has explained the basic concept of community policing from within a very small scope. Readers will be able to achieve a moderated and clear concept about community policing and its aims and objectives from it. The author has focused on the organizational structure, for implementing community policing effectively, and constitution, for administering the activities of the organization, in the booklet. This book will be easily comprehensible to all as it has been written in the lucid language.

“National Strategy of Community Policing for Bangladesh” quoted that “under the community policing philosophy the ultimate goal is the creation of a professional, representative, responsive, and accountable institution that works with the public. Police forces become more than crime fighters.” The strategic analysis identified some issues for implementation and made recommendations on-Community Policing Forums (CPFs), community policing and the existing criminal justice system, resistance, change management, timing, understanding the local context, assessment of ongoing initiatives, communication, planning and supervision. “Rahman, Sheikh Hafizur [11] Bangladesh police: Existing problems and some reform proposals.” -He noted that in common parlance cops and robbers are a conceptual couple - cops always to chase the robbers. Here he wants to focus the problems of Bangladesh Police and how to come out of the situation.

“Uddin, Rokon [12] community policing in Bangladesh.”- Considering the success of community policing in the Western World, the police department in Bangladesh began to experiment with community policing strategy. The police have been implementing a community policing system, which is very much similar – in theory – to that of the western style of community policing forum. In Bangladesh, the implementation of the community policing philosophy is one of the priority areas in the police reform process in Bangladesh. The implementation of community policing has, thus, become one of the six components in the second phase of the police reform. “The Asia Foundation [13] community policing assessment: Progress and Opportunities in Bangladesh.”- In Bangladesh, initial efforts, led by the Bangladesh Police, started as early as 1992 in Mymensing and Natore Districts, and then spread to other parts of Bangladesh. They developed a community policing model in the Rajshahi and other areas in 2007. They also strengthened a 2008 national strategy for community policing in 2008, instituted by the then Inspector General of Police.

“Nalla and Newman [14] community policing in Indigenous Communities”- Indigenous communities are typically those that challenge the laws of the nation states of which they have become— often very reluctantly—a part. Around the world, community policing has emerged in many of these regions as a product of their physical environments and cultures. They explored how deeply divided societies run under the community policing paradigm through a series of case studies. “Zaman [15] Community Policing: Potentials and impediments.”- Community policing is a philosophy and management approach that helps the community to address the causes of crime, fear of crime and community issues. Community policing means community driven policing system. In other way, community policing is an organization that works in a particular area to identify the problems within that area or community. Police and community people are joint partners of community policing.

Truly, it is found that there is no research work regarding this topic but this literature could help in completing the research work.

Methodology of the Study

The core objective of this study is to know about the fundamentals of the performance of the community policing. How it is working, what are the drawbacks of it, what the contributions of it in preventing crime and what can be strategies to make them effective and efficient to prevent crime while respecting human security and ensuring a safer and more secure Bangladesh allowing its citizens to live in an era of amity, security, and honesty. The study also tries to find the solutions what are the existing functions, features, expectations, and challenges of the community policing? and what actions are necessary to get the desired level of performance by them to prevent crime greatly from the grassroots level? The following hypothesis may be assumed as “Community policing is supportive and responsive in providing services to the people by preventing crime and ensuring human security. If there is coordination among political leaders, religious leaders, common people community policing and civil societies, then the activities of community policing will be more effective. If community policing gets proper guidelines as well as assistance and funding from the concerned authority then its objectives of preventing crime and ensuring human security can be achieved otherwise not.”

The independent variable is community policing. There are some dependent variables like preventing crime and human security. The questionnaires were designed by both the open and close-ended questions. Some parts designed to get opinions and comments on specific issues from the research participants. Close-ended questions were used to save time and open-ended questions to get in-depth knowledge and insight; as well as personal experiences and observations. This manuscript involved the analysis of the primary data from members of the Community Police, Security experts of GO and NGOs, Members of the law enforcing agencies, the Intelligence community, Political leaders, Religious leaders, Common people and Civil society (Table 1). In order to ensure the reliability of data, a number of respondents were interviewed. The secondary data has been gathered through content analysis and reviewing various national and international publications such as books, journals, related websites on the internet; Report of the Ministry of Home Affairs; Government documents, policy papers, manuals, and related Acts/Rules/Regulations.

Type of sample Sample size
Security experts of GO and NGOs 10
Members of the law enforcing agencies 10
Intelligence agencies 10
Political leaders 10
Religious leaders 10
Common people 20
Civil society 30
Community police 100
Total 200

Table 1: The sample size of the study for primary data.

Besides random sampling, this study depends on the qualitative and quantitative data. Some scales have been selected for the measurement of the study such as nominal, ordinal and interval. The collected data was accumulated, categorized and analyzed keeping in mind the objectives of the study. The analysis of quantitative data of the stated sources was done with the help of statistical tools like Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS), MS Excel etc. and interpretations of data are likely to be based on statistical generalization. The qualitative information is presented in a narrative or tabulated form. Moreover, in some cases, charts and tablature presentation have also been used to present the findings of the data in a graphic manner.

Collecting primary data from any security experts of GO and NGOs, members of the law enforcing agencies, intelligence agencies, and political leaders are not so easy matter. Another important thing is that as there are very few communities policing related studies has been undertaken in our country we find it a little bit challenging to deal with this study.

Community Policing in Bangladesh: From Past to Present

Past

The evolution of Community Policing in Bangladesh can be traced back to the Bangladesh Police. Bangladesh Police has an ancient history and heritage. The civilization of Bangladesh is older than that of the west. Bramhalipi was found at Mahastangar much earlier than the birth of Jesus Christ. In Arthashastra by Kautilya, policing was confined in the efforts of collecting intelligence in order to curb anti-governmental activities and to maintain law and order in the society (Community Policing Service Manual). The duties of undercover spies were extended such a way that they used to conduct surveillance over the activities of ministers, civil and military officials Two designations namely- Sthanik and Nagorik were there to conduct trials, to solve disputes of minor nature, to sanction monetary punishments and to impose social regulations and restrictions. In remote rural areas, heads of villages were responsible for maintaining law and order and for collecting information regarding the movements and activities of strangers [9]. In the ancient period, there was actually no organized and independent policing system in Bangladesh. Some of the activities of the police were carried out by a few assigned personnel.

The police system inherited by the zamindars continued during the initial period of the British rule. On 7 December 1792 Lord Cornowalice imposed the Police Regulations in Bangla, Bihar and Orissa collectorate areas. As a result, the era of keeping police forces by the Zamindars came to an end. The entire country was divided into several police areas and one Daroga was appointed for each area under the supervision of District Magistrate. Each district was divided into several police areas, each comprising of 400 square miles, and one daroga was in charge of each police area. The first hierarchy system in the police department introduced by Cornowalice was well-known as the thanadari system. However, Lord Moira remarked about this system as follows "This police system was introduced not so much for the protection of the people or prevention of crime, but was devised exclusively for strengthening the arms of the Magistrate and exercising an efficient control over the police of the interior (Community Policing Service Manual) [2]."

After the emergence of Pakistan in 1947, the Police force of this country was named, at first, as East Bengal Police and later as East Pakistan Police. In East Pakistan, this police force started working as a provincial police force. The act of shooting on the participants of language movement demonstration in 1952 was a perfect example of colonial rule and suppression. Although Police is considered the main driving force of law, it is never allowed to play the central role in the traditional criminal justice procedure (Community Policing Service Manual) [2].

The basic truth is that police is made to revolve around the principles of imperial power in the sub- continent. There were a lot of changes in police structure but no qualitative changes in the function of the police. With 130,000 personnel, three career entry points and a very strong colonial legacy, the Bangladesh Police Service is a large, highly structured and centralized police agency. The historical model of policing is, like all ex-British colonies, more Irish Constabulary than London Metropolitan Police. The result has been a militaristic style of policing, an emphasis on public order, a stress on discipline and drill, and a consequent difficulty in pursuing community policing (www.gtz. de/Bangladesh).

Present

In Bangladesh, Community Policing (CP), a relatively new thought is being explored by not only the Police but also Community Based Organizations (CBOs), and NGOs as a way of resolving problems at the community level by bringing the community and the police together. To deliver effective policing services in the changing society and address the emerging needs of the community, BP has set a remarkable milestone in 2008. Under new leadership, the BP has recently released its first corporate-wide strategic plan. Covering the years 2008 to 2010, the plan has recorded the corporate vision and key directions for the first time in the history of Bangladesh Police [16]. The strategy defines its:

And thus (Table 2) BP move forward from Force to Service with the community-focused approach which adopts the community policing as the future strategy of Bangladesh police.

Vision Key directions
By the year 2010 we envisage a safer and more secure society. The focus will be on
  • A partnership approach to policing
  • Organizational reform
  • Increased community involvement
  • Community policing
  • Capacity building of police units for better service delivery; and 
  • Capacity building of training institutions
  • A reduction in the incidence, effect and fear of crime
  • Women policing and gender sensitization and computerization

Table 2: The strategies of community policing.

The police initiated community-based policing in Mymensingh as a key initiative involving by the police. This innovative approach was initiated by senior police officials posted at Mymensingh District Police Headquarters in the early 1990’s in response to the poor law and order situation existing in the area. A community-based policing in term of Town Defense party (TDP) activities commenced in 1992 and still continue as a model of proactive policing today. The strategy is based on the principle of the police and the community finding solutions together not only in response to current problems but also as a preemptive measure. The initiative is fully owned by the police and the community, decisions are taken jointly and funds are locally raised to support the activities (Community Policing Service Manual) [2].

A community police pilot project at Boghra, Jessore and Madaripur, initiated by the Asia Foundation. The community police pilot project focuses on the formation of Community Police Forums (CPF), within the rural communities and municipality. Representatives from different walks of life are represented in these forums. Additionally, CPFs have no legal identity as they have not been registered in any of the government bodies (Community Policing Service Manual) [2]. In mid-2007, Rajshahi Range implemented community policing in the entire division level by forming Community Policing Forums (CPFs)/Committees up to the ward level of the Unions.

The conscious citizens are to come forward to be involved in the community policing activities. The representatives of all professions and members of civil society are to be given the opportunity to play their part in this regard. Each committee will have two parts: one is the Advisory Committee and the other is the Working Committee. The number of members may be 4-10 in the Advisory Committee and 15-20 in the Working Committee. The Working Committee will be constituted by one President, one or more Vice-presidents, one general secretary, one joint-general secretary, one office secretary; one publicity secretary, one treasurer and the rest would be members. Community policing committees must be non-political and social organizations. People from all walks, professions, and religions can be the members of the committees.

Legal basis

There is no bar against Community Policing by any law of the land despite its (Community Policing) not being created by any law or ordinance. There are compulsions on people to assist police and magistrate in certain cases vide sec. 42-45 of CrPC. As per regulation 32 of PRB, UP chairmen and members being public representatives can seek help from people in policing activities. To seek and get assistance from people is valid as per above rules and regulations. Community police, in fact, is an organized force of people for assisting police. So, the laws existing in the land support community policing. The Panchayet System and Arbitration by local elites or leaders of a village to settle down disputes are instances of mass-recognition towards community policing (Community Policing Service Manual) [2].

Community policing: Analyses of Research Findings and Results

The study tries to present the findings and come to a conclusion about the existing functions, features, expectations, and challenges of the community policing. It describes the collected data and analyzes data in order to verify whether the research objectives and research questions of this study have been attained or not. To this end, the following aspects of this study were highlighted here. As mentioned earlier, in accordance with the objectives and the questions of the research the analysis of data and their findings have been presented here chronologically.

Introducing the concept of community policing throughout the Bangladesh

The following Table 3 demonstrates that 88% respondents of community police said that the concept of Community Policing should be introduced throughout Bangladesh whereas 12% said that the concept of Community Policing should not be introduced throughout the Bangladesh. Again, 84% of respondents of general said that the concept of Community Policing should be introduced throughout Bangladesh whereas 16% said that the concept of Community Policing should not be introduced throughout Bangladesh.

Respondents’ opinion
Community Police General Total
Percentage Yes No Yes No Yes No
88 12 84 16 172 28
88% 12% 84% 16% 86% 14%

Table 3: Opinion of respondents about introducing the concept of community policing throughout the Bangladesh.

In total, the majority of respondents opined that the concept of community policing should be introduced throughout Bangladesh. Causes mentioned by the respondents are as follows: It has helped people to live safely; it is needed to solve the problem of all people in Bangladesh; the local problem can be solved by the local people in the best way; it acts as a bridge between people and the people; it is a preventive measure which can dominate crime; it helps to decrease crime; it is helpful to develop the social security of the local people and reduce social crime as well as to ensure a crime-free area; the number of police stations and the police per thousand in Bangladesh is lower than any other country in the world so community policing is needed for social security; at least the rate of crime must decrease at least even if a single portion; they can play a vital role to decrease crime by giving social security; as our population as well as our crimes are increasing day by day; for mitigating crime; though it is not capable to prevent all bad activities minimum to be solved; involving people from different communities can prevent crime easily; it demotivates criminal to attain crime; it helps local people to solve their problems; it also generally increase the public participation; increase in interpersonal relationships; to increase policing services; to control crime; people can play a vital role in preserving law and order situation; it is the necessity for the government and citizen due to large population and less police; can eradicate social problems; helps law enforcing agencies; prevents youth to commit crimes and to stop local crimes and mismanagement.

There are many Community Polices in Bangladesh. But are they effective to prevent crime and ensure human security. Strategies should be appropriate to attain its objectives. The Table 4 shows it.

Appropriate/Needed changes Yes No
Community
Police
General Total Community
Police
General Total
Appropriate 27 31 58
(29%)
73 69 142 (71%)

Table 4: The effectiveness of community policing to prevent crime and ensure human security.

The effectiveness of community policing

The Table 4 reveals that 29% respondents expressed positive opinion. More than half of the respondents (71%) expressed negatively. Those who expressed negatively they mentioned some points that can be depicted in the Table 5.

Needed changes Community Police General Total
They need to be well educated 9 6 15
They should have authority 4 -- 4
Number should be increased 8 3 11
Should have good arms 9 6 15
Should have better pay 9 6 15
Should have proper training 18 23 41
They should be assured that they are
permanent
5 0 5
There should have other organizations with
community police
4 0 4
Increasing their power 4 11 15
Should be free of any pressure 3 -- 3
They should be honest 0 7 7
They should be impartial 0 4 4
Top level officers should be engaged in
community police
0 3 3
Total 73 69 142

Table 5: Mentioned points by the respondents.

Post of community polices

Community Polices are directly involved in the execution of policy at the field level to control or prevent crime. Thus, the appropriate number of Community Polices is very important to prevent crime. The Table 6 illuminates that 36% of respondents answered positively about the appropriateness of Community Policies in any area and 32% expressed negatively.

Opinion on coordination among the members of the community police
Community Police General Total
Percentage Yes No Yes No Yes No
36 64 22 78% 58 142
36% 64% 22% 78 29% 71%

Table 6: Respondents’ opinion on coordination among the members of the community police.

Coordination among the members of the community police

Coordination is essential when multiple actors are involved in the pursuit of common goals. If there is proper coordination only then the policies can be implemented successfully. The lack of coordination leads to discord, friction, chaos and confusion, ultimately causing inefficiency and ineffectiveness in the activities of organizations involved (Khan). The Figure 1 explains that 29% respondents said there is coordination among the members of the Community Polices and rest of the 71% said there is no coordination.

review-public-adminstration-management-community-police

Figure 1: Coordination among the members of the community police.

How coordination can be ensured mentioned by the respondents are as “Ensuring public police relationship; not having political leaders interference; public will help police; by ensuring public police friendship; monitoring by police officer; creating a coordination guideline; one post of senior officer should be created in this relation; non-political persons should be taken into consideration; monitoring should be increased by superintendent of police; by encouraging them; incorporating local honest and social worker and leader; taking proper feedback; nonofficial meeting beside formal meeting; by decreasing salary difference; giving proper training; regular weekly meeting; proper formation of committee; ethical and moral teaching; awareness of technology; knowledge about mode of technology of crime; highest priority to peoples demand; ensuring security; making permanent job; making them as part of police; correlate them with local security agency; ensuring government proper support; increasing chain of command; functional structure of modification; relation with general member and proper planning.”

Proper training

Without the proper training Community Police will not be able to perform their duties effectively. So, training is very important for community polices (Table 7).

Respondents’ opinion on Proper training of community police
Community Police General Total
Percentage Yes No Yes No Yes No
18 82 -- 100 18 182
18% 82% -- 100% 9% 91%

Table 7: Proper training of community police.

The following Figure 2 explicates that most of the respondents said that the community polices have not proper training except very few said they have proper training that is less than 10%.

review-public-adminstration-management-community-police

Figure 2: Proper training of community police.

Faced problems by the respondents during performing roles

The above Table 8 explicates that most of the respondents faced problems during performing their duties among them 80% faced interference of political leaders. In the Figure 3 we can see all the problems at their ranges.

Problems Frequency Percentage
No problems -- --
Interference of political leaders 80 80%
Interference of leaders of
businessmen
40 40%
Interference of police 60 60%
Other 55 55%
Lack of coordination with PGR and SSF in performing duties 5 5%
Total 200 100%

Table 8: Faced problems by the respondents during performing roles.

review-public-adminstration-management-Faced-problems

Figure 3: Faced problems by the respondents during performing roles.

Level of satisfaction by the government’s initiatives of community policing

The above Table 9 reveals that most of the respondents said that they are satisfied by the government’s initiatives of Community Policing. In the Figure 4 we can see all the satisfaction levels at their ranges.

Satisfaction level Opinion  
Community Police General Total Percentage
Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage Frequency
Highly satisfied 15 15% 25 25% 40 20%
Satisfied 65 65% 30 30% 95 47%
Dissatisfied 20 20% 30 30% 50 25%
Highly dissatisfied -- -- 15 15% 15 8%
Total 100 100% 100 100% 200 100%

Table 9: Level of satisfaction by the government’s initiatives of community policing.

review-public-adminstration-management-satisfaction-level

Figure 4: Respondents satisfaction level.

Possibility of preventing crime and ensuring human security

The Table 10 depicts that 15% respondents answered positively and 85% said crime will decrease in large portion (Table 11).

Options Community Police Percentage General Percentage Total Percentage
Yes 10 10% 20 20 30 15%
No -- -- -- -- -- --
Crime will decrease
in large portion
90 90% 80 80 170 85%
Total 10 10% 10 100% 200 100%

Table 10: Possibility of preventing crime and ensuring human security.

Impediments Recommended measures
Lack of support Sensitization meeting
Lack of money Observe the pubic response regularly
Lack of all types of awareness Government should increase their budget
Political interference Proper planning
Poor trained people Government can arrange seminars or
Lack of proper plan workshops
Lack of logistic support Print and electronic media can play a vital role
Lack of labor force Government can increase public awareness
Lack of government initiative Advertising in the media
Muscle power of local politician Ensuring economic and social facilities
People cannot trust them Proper training
Lack of eligible man power Awareness program
Lack of coordination between public and police Positive mentality among politician and higher officials of police
Lack of cooperation from the government Popper rules and regulations
Lack of cooperation from the police Popper coordination among civil servants
Police is very much busy with different tasks Compulsory for police this act should be made
Lack of political enthusiasm Positive mentality among politician and
Negative mentality among members bureaucrats
Political unwillingness Involvement of good people
Media role Police should be involved in the formation of
Importance of community policing the committee
Poverty Ensure public-police relationship
Bureaucratic problem Regular monitoring
Non-expert force Campaign for motivation
Police department doesn’t not want it Initiative to attract the youths through
Local powerful criminals Incentives and motivation

Table 11: Impediments and recommendations.

Challenges of Community Policing

Barriers of community policing

Both the police and the public are driven by traditional mentality. They are not willing to accept something new for they are habituated to work in traditional ways having the traditional perception of mindset. Such a negative perception is the main barrier to community policing.

• Majority people are ignorant about their duties and rights. Rights and duties are inter-related.

• Where there are rights, there are duties. For example, people should co-operate with police and administration for availing the right to lead a secure and peaceful life. But most people do not have any idea about it, and it is a hindrance to community policing.

• People depend on the police for their security. People have an idea that the police can do anything and everything if they wish. Being aligned to this conviction, they do not come forward to assist police.

• Some people are anti-police. They never help the police; moreover, they avoid and discourage others to help, police.

• Police do not make adequate time and labor to give the clear idea about community policing to people. They treat it as an extra botheration.

• There is the shortage of resources for the operation of community policing. There is no govt. allocation and it is, also, difficult to convince people to contribute. People don’t want to buy, with own and spontaneous expenses, peace and security for them.

• Community policing is not included in routine police activities. Therefore, the police members refrain from engaging adequate labor and thought in this affair.

• People are reluctant in responding to police calls as they have less confidence in the latter.

• They remain suspicious about police matters.

• Unrealistic expectation: A section of people expects that, as an effective method of crime reduction and problem-solving community policing approach will provide immediate and measurable results. This expectation of the people is unrealistic. Community policing is not a panacea for society’s all ills. It cannot produce result magically. People should perceive that community policing is not a revolution, it is an evolution. Community policing brings gradual changes, it grows day by day.

• Lack of clear conception about community policing: Community policing is often misunderstood and viewed as ineffective. People need to be clear that community policing is not simply equivalent to foot patrol or guarding the neighborhood only. But officers on foot and citizens on patrol have the opportunity of getting closer to the community and meeting more people. Police patrols without building relationships with the community have less effectiveness. Patrolling by patrolmen of community is one of the strategies of community policing. But the absence or failure of engaging patrolmen should not be considered as the ineffectiveness of community policing.

• Lack of the capacity of the organization: Another pitfall is the inability of the organization in the management to fulfill the commitment. Internal problems like job dissatisfaction, animosity between stakeholders of community policing and local Governing bodies, misunderstanding between police and office bearers of community policing committee, resource constraints etc. sometimes put the back gear in the field of community policing philosophy.

• The dominating attitude of officers: Some police officers responsible for the community policing affairs have dominating attitude towards the people. They tend to impose their decision over the citizens. They don’t like to hear the problems and suggestions from the people. This attitude of police officers discourages the citizens to come forward to get involved in community policing approach. Police officers must give up this tendency to allow community input and citizen empowerment without which community policing cannot be implemented.

Suggestive Measures and Concluding Remarks

To make community policing more effective

• The Police officers should be made clear that community policing is a working philosophy.

• Development of clear policies aims and functions of community police service.

• Proper training should be provided to the police officers working in the community police centers.

• Expansion of community police centers throughout all districts.

• Compensation for the best performing police officers in the community police center should be arranged.

To make the system for valuation of CPOs

Community Policing differs from traditional policing (Tables 12 and 13) in that it focuses less on quantification and more on qualitative long-term changes. For this, CPOs must be evaluated differently than traditional evaluation. A CPO must be evaluated in the criteria such as:

Needed Community
Polices
Appropriate Not appropriate  
Community
Police
General Total Community
Police
General Total
34 38 72 -- -- --
Below 40 -- -- -- 4 10 14
40-50 -- -- -- 6 6 12
Above 50 -- -- -- 9 -- 9
Each ward should have a
committee
-- -- -- 15 6 21
According to the population
density
-- -- -- -- 8 8
No answer -- -- -- 32 42 74
Total 34 38 72 34 30 64

Table 12: Appropriateness of community polices post, if no, then how many are needed.

Subjects Traditional policing Community policing
Who are the police? A government agency
principally responsible for law enforcement
Police are the public and the public
are the police
What is the relationship of the police force to the
public service department?
Priorities often conflict The police are one department
among many responsible for
improving the quality of life
How is police efficiency
Measured?
By detection and arrests rate By absence of crime and disorder
What are the highest
Priorities?
Crime that are of the high
values
What are the problem that disturb the
community most?
What specially the police
deal with?
Incidents Citizens problems and concerns
What determines the
effectiveness of police?
Response times Public cooperation
What view do police take of service calls? Deals with only if there is no police problems Vital functions and great opportunity
What is police
Professionalism?
Swift, effective and
response to serious crime
Keeping close to the community
What kind of intelligence
is most important?
Crime intelligence Information about the activities of
individuals or groups e intelligence
What is essential nature of
police accountability?
Highly centralized,
governed by rules,
regulations and accountable
to the law
Local accountability on community
needs
What is the role of HQ? To provide necessary rules
and policy directives
To preach organizational values

Table 13: Shows that the distinction between traditional policing and community policing.

• Intelligence gathering and information sharing.

• Quantifiable activities such as positive citizen’s contact; daily contacts with residents, number of street meetings, community meetings and surprises visits.

• Proactive policing and eliminating unsafe conditions; Eliminating causes of fear as loitering gangs, street drug sales, attending issues of domestic abuses, Special group and referrals, Abandoned buildings and vehicles.

• Facilitation of diversionary activities; encouraging youths to join youth clubs, working with schools and social service agencies to address special needs of the community.

• Change in number and types of crime.

Monitoring and evaluation

Benchmarks and/or indicators to monitor the implementation will be developed which will be realistic, simple and least expensive, and it is key that they are used by the implementation mechanisms and structures that will be set up. Mid-term reviews and monitoring processes will be built into the overall monitoring and evaluation process to enable revision of the reform as it is implemented. Reporting and recording mechanisms will be unified following certain rules and be part of an overall CP strategy in Bangladesh.

This will be achieved creating stakeholders meetings for the design of these mechanisms. This recording system will be linked with national system for monitoring. Community Policing is necessary not only to decrease and prevent crime but also to ensure human security and to make the country a peaceful one. There are many advantages of community policing. We cannot maintain a peaceful and crime free society without the activities of community policing committee. Local problems can be solved by the local people in the best way; community police acts as a bridge between people and the police. Through different preventive measures of community police members’ crime in a society can be reduced. Community police develop the social security of the people in the locality. The number of policing committee and the police per thousand in Bangladesh is lower than any other country in the world. So, community policing is needed for social security; at least the rate of crime will decreased to a certain level, Community police can play a vital role to decrease crime by giving social security; as our population as well as our crimes are increasing day by day.

References

Citation: Islam S (2018) Community Policing (CP): Challenges on Preventing Crime and Human Security in Bangladesh. Review Pub Administration Manag 6: 253.

Copyright: ©2018 Islam S. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.