We live in a time where there is a projected increase in the number of adults surviving to advanced age. With that comes a tremendous financial burden in caring for these elderly individuals, who are likely to develop chronic diseases; both cardiovascular and neurological. Multiple studies have clearly demonstrated the benefits of exercise for preventing cardiovascular disease and age-related cognitive declines. Given the foreseeable human and economic challenges in caring for a vast elderly population with chronic disease, it is clear that appropriate exercise prescriptions could be a feasible, cost effective and therapeutic intervention measure for preventing cardiovascular and neurological diseases. However, not all older patients may possess the physical or cognitive capacity to perform physical exercise. Therefore, delineating the pathways that mediate these exercise-induced benefits and understanding how to manipulate them in vivo, may yield novel therapeutic approaches to aging prevention.