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Applications of Super Critical Fluid Extraction in Milk and Dairy Industry: A Review

Shyam Kumar Singh, Maddikunta Sai Pavan, Sai Prasanna N and Rajni Kant

In the present scenario of growing population and environmental concerns, consumers are having huge preferences towards healthier, minimally processed and long shelf stable foods which in turn paved the way to develop new functional dairy products. Numerous and wider range of possible methods with better nutritional emphasis and enhanced functionality of dairy foods were emerging. Super Critical Fluid Extraction (SCFE) is one amongst the processes which is currently becoming popular in modifying different food products to produce new ones. This SCFE gained prominence as an alternative to green technology in the food processing industry. It is a fluid phase extraction processing method which operates in between a gas and liquid and induces solubilization of solutes in a base food material. In this method, supercritical fluids most commonly CO? is used as a solvent to separate one selective component from the base food material. SCFE can be varied for different foods upon altering the two factors, i.e., pressure and temperature or both. The products obtained in milk and dairy processing with use of SCFE had a higher shelf life and acceptable sensorial properties with minimal loss of quality attributes. In this review, some studies related to the potential of SCFE and its microbial inactivation, milk fat analysis, milk fat fractionation and fat solubility, extraction of cholesterol, vitamins, flavours, fat and applications of SCFE technology in dairy products and by-products more specifically in butter, cheese, whey cream and buttermilk were discussed briefly.