Procrastination is one of the problems leading to performance decline, and spirituality-based lifestyle is an effective factor on stress reduction. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between spirituality-based lifestyle and procrastination among employed women in Tehran city. The method of this study is correlation. Statistical population of this paper includes all 20- to 40-year-old employed women working 24 h per week in Education and Training Organization in Tehran city. The sample of this study included 200 employed women in Education and Training Organization in 2016 chosen through multistage cluster random sampling method. To collect data, two Spiritual Assessment Inventory and Procrastination Scale were used. To analyze data, Pearson’s correlation and regression analyses were applied. The results indicated that there is a negative relationship between spirituality-based lifestyle and procrastination among employed women in Tehran (P î¬ 0.01). Procrastination among employed women is predictable through spirituality-based lifestyle; in other words, an increase in spirituality within lifestyle would lead to reduction in procrastination rate.
Keywords: Spirituality-based lifestyle; Procrastination; Employed women
Procrastination is tendency of the person to postpone tasks and work  And one procrastinates delays beginning or completing an intended course of action . There are many evidences indicating that procrastination is common among female teachers . Teachers would experience procrastination, tiredness, work leaving, absenteeism, failure, and mental-physical problems .
Procrastination was considered as laziness, rebellion, guilt, and helplessness in the past during the Industrial Revolution . Sokolowska concluded that procrastination rate among the last-year students of the university was high, so the tendency of the students to procrastinate will be high if they remain more years in the university. For instance, senior students might be involved in academic procrastination 3/5 time more than new-entered students.  Robin et al.  have expressed procrastination as failure in self-regulations. Procrastination has a negative effect on health  and life satisfaction .
According to Adler’s theory, lifestyle includes personal and unique strategies and beliefs of every person founded in childhood . Lifestyle originates from the person and personal identity as well as cultural factors and social fields such as media and cyberspace. Mass and electronic media is one of the other determining factors of lifestyle . Lifestyle is related to the daily patterns of life such as food type, eating habits, leisure time activities, specific habits such as smoking, physical activity, sport, sleep style, and methods for using healthcare services . Religious lifestyle is a life in which a person considers religious teachings and principles in his/her life and creates the life pattern based on them . Gomez and Fischer  have defined spirituality as a state of being, heaving positive feeling, effective relationship with self and others, self-awareness, and relying on an extraordinary and inherent power so that the person feels identity, perfection, satisfaction, joy, happiness, beauty, love, respect, positive attitude, calmness, and inner balance within a purposeful life. Having purpose and meaning in life, sense of belonging to a high source, being hopeful about the help of God in problematic life conditions, and benefitting from social and spiritual support are features of the lifestyle of religious people .
According to the research of Watson , there is a positive relation between procrastination and avoidant orientation while there is a negative relation between procrastination and tending orientation.
The findings of Jokar et al.  indicate that procrastination as a dysfunctional trait has a negative relationship with self-discipline.
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between spirituality-based lifestyle and procrastination among employed women in Tehran city in accordance with important roles of lifestyle in mental health.
This paper is a descriptive research with correlation type. The statistical population of this paper includes all 20- to 40-year-old employed women working 24 h per week in Education and Training Organization in Tehran city. The sample of this study included 200 employed women in Education and Training Organization chosen through multistage cluster random sampling method. Accordingly, 5 regions were randomly chosen out of 19 regions of Tehran and then 3 school were chosen from these regions randomly and employed women filled out the Hall Spiritual Assessment Inventory and Procrastination Scale under the supervision of psychologist.
Hall spiritual assessment inventory
The Spiritual Assessment Inventory of Hall and Edwards  was designed to evaluate two dimensions of awareness of God and quality of relationship with God. The first version included five scales comprising awareness, realistic acceptance, disappointment, grandiosity, and instability. Hall and Edwards revised the scale in 2002 and added another subscale, perception management; therefore, the present version includes six scales. SAI is a self-report instrument with 47 items some of which include two parts. The respondent should express the agreement or disagreement rate on a 5-point LIKERT scale.
The scoring of items of sub-scale of realistic acceptance (considered in questions number ×.×.2) is related to the response to the equal question within disappointment scale (question number ×.×.1). If the response to the question ×.×.1 is “not correct” (1), then question ×.×.2 is not included in the score mean of scale of realistic acceptance. For instance, if the respondent rates the score 1 to question 2.1, then question 2.2 is not included in the calculation of the score mean of realistic acceptance.
Hall and Edwards  reported Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for subscales of Spiritual Assessment Inventory as follows: awareness (0/95), disappointment (0/90), realistic acceptance (0/83), grandiosity (0/73), instability (0/84), and perception management (0/77). These coefficients indicate the optimal reliability of this test. Face validity of this inventory was confirmed by Iranian psychology professors, and total reliability coefficient of this method was equal to 0/90 among teachers conducted in Iran through the test-retest method.
Procrastination test or general procrastination scale was applied to measure behavioral procrastination. This scale was designed by Lay  that included items with five options. Scoring of negative items is adversely done, and this scale has optimal reported validity and reliability. This scale has been presented by Sirois  with reported internal consistency equal to 82% through alpha coefficient. Lay  has reported Cronbach’s alpha equal to 85% for a 75-member sample. The results of Sepehrian and Husseinzadeh  on 35 sample showed the reliability (test- re test) scores of this scale was 69% through Cronbach’s alpha.
In this study 200 employed women aged between 20 and 40, working in Education Organization of Tehran city 24 h per week, were included. Their average education level was BA.
There is a relationship between spirituality-based lifestyle and procrastination among employed women in Tehran city.
Table 1 includes correlation between predictor variables (spirituality-based lifestyle) and criterion variable (procrastination). According to the results, there is a significant negative relationship between spirituality-based lifestyle and procrastination.
*P ? 0/05 **P ? 0/01.
Table 1: Correlation between spirituality-based lifestyle and procrastination.
Therefore, the hypothesis of the study is accepted. In other words, there is a negative relationship between spirituality-based lifestyle and procrastination among employed women in Tehran city.
Table 2 indicates the summary of the predicting model of scores of procrastination among employed women based on spiritualitybased lifestyle as well as the Durbin-Watson test to determine the independence between residuals.
|Multiple correlation coefficient||Determination coefficient||Adjusted determination coefficient||Standard error of estimation||Durbin- Watson|
A. Predicting variables: (fixed value), spirituality-based lifestyle
Table 2: Summary of the predicting model of procrastination among employed women based on spiritualty-based lifestyle.
According to Table 3, if the tolerance value for a specific variable is equal to 0/01 or less and/or VIF value is above 10, there will be a multiple colinearity. According to the results, tolerance and VIF values are at an optimal range, indicating that there is no multiple colinearity between predicting (independent) variables; therefore, it can be stated that the procrastination level of a person can be predicted based on the scores of lifestyle.
|Model||Nonstandard coefficients||Standard coefficients||T value||Significance||Multiple colinearity values|
|B||Standard error||Beta||Tolerance values||VIF|
Table 3: Regression coefficients to predict the scores of procrastination based on spirituality-based lifestyle.
Table 3 indicates regression coefficients and significance of regression coefficients to predict the scores of procrastination among employed women based on spirituality-based lifestyle. Also the results of awareness (b1) is equal to −4/83 that is statistically significant (P0 = 0/001). Therefore, regression coefficient of awareness variable is significant to predict procrastination so that it is possible to predict the procrastination level of a person using his/her obtained awareness score.
Procrastination as a dysfunctional feature is along with postponing of a task or decision  as well as delaying of the required matters for goal achievement. It also postpones the tasks committed to a person [23,24]. Religion has an effective role in choosing the spirituality-based lifestyle .
According to the obtained results, there was a negative and reverse relationship between spirituality-based lifestyle and procrastination among women in Tehran city.
This finding is coordinated with obtained results of domestic studies as follows: The study about the relation between spiritual intelligence and academic procrastination of second-grade high school students in West Islam Abad conducted by Husseini and Amiri  indicates that an increase in spiritual intelligence leads to reduction in academic procrastination among students and vice versa; The study of Namian and Hussein chari  showed that there is a negative relationship between academic procrastination of students within homework and positive religious beliefs and spirituality-based lifestyle; Also the results of study by Fatemi Nasab and Mohammadi-Aria  indicate a significant negative correlation between religious strategies and academic procrastination; findings of the study by Jamshidi  prove that there is a significant negative relationship between academic procrastination and religious orientation; and results obtained from the study conducted by Ranjbar et al.  show the relationship between parents’ lifestyle and self-regulation and their children’s procrastination.
On the other hand, this finding is matched with results obtained from some foreign studies as follows: The study of Capan  shows the relationship between procrastination and perfectionism; the study of Senecal and Koestner indicates that students who have inner incentive to do their homework procrastinate less than the students with external incentive; the research of Rakes  expresses that internal motivation is an effective factor in reducing academic procrastination compared to external motivation; the study of Chu and Choi  indicates the relationship between procrastination and self-efficacy; and the study of Kagan et al.  indicates a positive and significant relationship between academic procrastination and confused identity style.
The obtained results indicate that there is a negative relationship between spirituality-based lifestyle and procrastination among employed women in Tehran city, so spirituality-based lifestyle can predict procrastination among employed women. In other words, an increase in spirituality-based lifestyle would lead to reduction in procrastination and vice versa. The present study conducted included only female teachers; hence, carrying out such a study on women from different groups and walks of society as well as men is suggested. On the other hand, this study has only considered employed persons; hence, it is required that such a study on unemployed men and women, students, housewives, etc., be conducted. Since perfectionism and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder are related to procrastination, further studies to control these variables among samples are recommended.
The authors of this study thank all the respondents and personnel of Education Organization of Tehran city who were involved in this research.