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Review Article - (2023) Volume 14, Issue 2

Nanotechnology: Role Development Impact of Nanomedicine on Covid-19 Pandemic Management
Erum Alia*
Altman Clinical and Translational Research Institute, University of California San Diego Health Center, San Diego, CA, USA
*Correspondence: Erum Alia, Altman Clinical and Translational Research Institute, University of California San Diego Health Center, San Diego, CA, USA, Email:

Received: 03-Feb-2023, Manuscript No. JNMNT-23-19907; Editor assigned: 06-Feb-2023, Pre QC No. JNMNT-23-19907; Reviewed: 20-Feb-2023, QC No. JNMNT-23-19907; Revised: 24-Feb-2023, Manuscript No. JNMNT-23-19907; Published: 28-Feb-2023, DOI: 10.35248/2157-7439.23.14.661.


Extensive reports of pulmonary embolisms, ischaemic stroke and myocardial infarctions caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), as well as a significantly increased long-term risk of cardiovascular diseases in COVID-19 survivors, have highlighted severe deficiencies in our understanding of thromboinflammation and the need for new therapeutic options. Due to the complexity of the immunothrombosis pathophysiology, the efficacy of treatment with conventional anti-thrombotic medication is questioned. Thrombolytics do appear efficacious, but are hindered by severe bleeding risks, limiting their use. Nanomedicine can have profound impact in this context, protecting delicate (bio) pharmaceuticals from degradation en route and enabling delivery in a targeted and on demand manner. We provide an overview of the most promising nanocarrier systems and design strategies that may be adapted to develop nanomedicine for COVID-19-induced thromboinflammation, including dual-therapeutic approaches with antiviral and immunosuppressants. Resultant targeted and side-effect-free treatment may aid greatly in the fight against the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


COVID-19; Nanotechnology; Nanomedicine; SARS-CoV-2


Coronavirus has become a global epidemic and a major public health concern in a relatively short period of time. People’s health, safety, and economic well-being have been negatively impacted by the epidemic. COVID-19 side effects ranged from minor to acute and included everything from acute lung sickness to cardiogenic shock and even death. Those who are elderly or who have diseases that are dormant are more likely to suffer from life-threatening consequences. From then on, significant efforts were committed to promoting prevention, diagnostic, and therapeutic approaches to combat the COVID-19 war [1]. In this way, additionally, the creation of signalling and antibodies to target disease is being pursued in conjunction with prevention or the passage of the square infection has become a necessity in the fight against COVID-19. Regardless of the possibility, rapid transmission of genetic variants and development has greatly increased the global burden. Nanotechnology completes as an important asset with a potential for measuring pollution by playing a key role in anticipating, diagnosing, and refining COVID-19 prophylaxis processes. Nanotechnology and sanitizer protective procedures are among these techniques, tools with rapid, heart-clear, and transparent diagnostic tools and rehabilitation specialists or antibodies to transmit antibodies to the human body. As a rule, nano-matadium, for example, metal nanoparticles remain shorter in size one micrometre, bringing a higher surface-to-volume ratio. Nanomaterials also have better melting and more efficient activation of effective drug transfer, as well as changes in quality like a positive correlation between target analysis and atomic retention in the nerves. Therefore, nanomaterials are highly focused on potentially playing a crucial function in managing the existing epidemic and prevent potential outbreaks [2].

According to this review research article concentrated on the latest developments of the nanotechnology COVID-19 based on three key categories: prevention, diagnosis, and treatment that provide comprehensive research on their ease of use and function. Finally, the critical complexity and future topics of COVID-19 nanotechnology applications are temporarily explored. During the COVID-19 epidemic, this research will be of great help in providing rules for creating nanostructure materials to deal with the episode. Current review article discussed how different nanomaterials can be used to combat the COVID-19 pandemic.


Atomic tests are much more obvious than CT filters to get precise conclusions because of their visible pieces of evidence. Serology testing is another way to deal with SARS-CoV-2. In particular, detection of specific antibodies alongside the corona virus spike proteins is preferable. Diagnosis contributes significantly to the construction of the barrier of COVID-19, which limits its distribution by understanding ID and disconnection. While a number of diagnostic methods have been introduced, promoting critical and rapid testing of COVID-19 symptoms remains a challenge [3].

Chest modernized tomography filters and atomic tests were used to evaluate and diagnose COVID-19. The serological research center explores and rapid testing projects have reached out to corona virus. Although in vitro experiments are basic and successful, they have shown problems within diagnosis of corona virus owing to the regulation of infectious diseases based on mutations.

Various nanomaterials are currently used in the area of infection detection. Both nucleic corrosive and protein diagnostic techniques are less sensitive to knowledge, for example, genomic and proteomic formation of a microbe or protein quality adjustment in the host when contaminated. Proteomics and genomics of SARS-CoV-2 have been detected as of March 2020; however, the response to SARS-CoV-2 assays is still being developed for this disease.

One of the most extensively utilized nanomaterials for fast diagnostics is gold nanoparticle. Similarly, a specific measurement of colorimetric hybridization was employed to differentiate SARSCoV- based dsDNA based on ssRNA. For example, nanoparticles of gold have been used to classify waste DNA for specific disorders, such as cancer. Specifically, in the AuNP environment, singlestranded RNA or DNA can interact with citrate particles and salt expansion can resolve particles and modify the tone. These structures interact with the immune response, which brings about absorption and changes of dignity, enabling the effective diagnosis of COVID-19. In another study, a successful protein-binding process was performed on the outer layer of Au using Au-restricting polypeptides. The Au-restricting polypeptide complex protein and AuNP nanopattern protein did not move to the refined raw luminous antigen, corona virus antigen E, and specific antigen pattern [4].

In another study, the strategy became accustomed to detecting infection with COVID-19 without the use of modern tools. Color identification was created using thiol-adjusted antisense oligonucleotides covering AuNPs that are explicitly designed for N attributes. The thiol-adjusted ASO-cap AuNPs were especially collected in the eyes of the corona virus target RNA system and demonstrated the modification of its surface plasmon flexibility. In addition, one meeting promoted a consistent broadcast rate of quick IgM an antidote for SARS-CoV-2 using a circular immune chromatographic method. For the most part, the SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein was coated with a rational layer to capture the target, and hate on human IgM was established in the AuNP, filling in as the author of the identifying column. The AuNP-LF study has shown amazing selections in IgM detection without being prevented by other diseases. Within 15 minutes, each test requires 10–20 L of serum, and the results can be realized [5]. Basically, test time and combined the two stages of lysis and limitation into one and pcMNPs-RNA structures can be combined into the RT-PCR response result. This test identifies two different viral sites RNA, and access to 10 copies of the COVID-19 pseudo-virus molecule has been developed. One study revealed the location of COVID-19 respiratory biomarkers using an AuNP-based sensor. A sensor that integrates various auNP connected environmentally. Larger as it is later, the location of COVID-19 using painless methods is proposed.

Accurate recognition requires productive extraction and separation of nucleic acids in experiments that allow for targeted purification. Magnetic nanoparticles are commonly used to decompose nucleic decomposition before detection. For example, super paramagnetic nanoparticles are based on key experiments in the target system SARS-CoVs used in a single study. By using magnetism, active super paramagnetic nanoparticles can produce targeted cDNA in models. In another study, Somvanshi et al. announced the formation of surface-level MNPs and a viral RNA release protocol to evaluate the feasibility of COVID-19. How much DNA was extracted by PCR was tested using silica-covered fluorescence nanoparticles composed of clusters. There are luminous signals related directly to the target cDNA collection in silica-covered fluorescent nanoparticles. Zinc-based nanoparticles were produced by burning and treated with silica and carboxyl-changed polyvinyl liquor on their surface regions. One such study demonstrates the capacity for viral RNA extraction from a range of different strains. Reducing the action steps provides incredible power for the diagnosis of COVID-19 atomic level [6]. In addition, another study introduced a single nucleic corrosive extraction that explicitly combines viral RNA using polycarboxyl-functionalized amino-gathered altered MNPs. Nucleic acids are collected using an attractive field and are later released into the MNPs by the expansion of the bath bed. MNPs with polycarboxyl functionalization were shown to have positive similarities and paramagnetic structures with quick capture targets by identifying COVID-19 pseudo-viruses.

Quantum dots are another fluorescence imaging technique for atoms. Quantum dots, or semiconductor nanoparticles with a diameter of 1–10 nm, are frequently employed to identify corona virus infection. One of QD’s great qualities, which include its visual properties, has made it an amazing opportunity to fill in as fluorescent. In addition, their output frequency can be adjusted efficiently and accurately by altering their dimensions. Because of its outstanding characteristics, QDs are currently the most common cognitive test for diagnosis. For example, Ashiba et al. are associated with a soft biosensor in a different way that identifies infection and prevents the spread of contaminants. Surface plasmon reverberation-assisted fluoroimmunosensor formulation and QD fluorescent color were used for testing. As a result, the sensor had the option of achieving a longer transmission rate of 0.01 ng/mL compared to infectious particles. The ability to arouse QD, the level of electrical field development with SPR, and the substrate's autofluorescent on the chip has been simplified to lessen base signals.

Another study put a QD-based RNA chip into the heart and rapid location of the SARS-CoV N protein. Simply said, the introduction of fluorescent QDs enables analysts to create more intricate pathways for COVID-19 symptoms. A QD-based RNA aptamer, in instance, can directly attach the corona virus immobile protein to a chip, generating a visual signal.


Since a satisfactory drug supply may not be readily available, nondrug interventions are suggested as an important alternative. The outbreak of COVID-19 has grown at an alarming rate. Predictability measures include drug production and nondrug measures. Therefore, emerging areas for developing COVID-19 protection techniques exist in the field of nanotechnology [7].

When it comes to high filter coverings, an electrostatic charger and a separating surface component made of polypropylene microfibers are employed. Nano-matadium such as nanofibres and nanofiber networks are often used as part of the cover to limit the dispersal of droplets that are large enough to persuade healthcare workers that there will be no transmission between patients. The coverage of various antibacterial covers has been developed through the use of channel materials, for example, nanofibres and nanofiber networks, as well as treating the channel area with antibacterial properties. They have a small empty size, low weight, improved penetration, and amazing void connections. Nanofibres provide an excellent storage environment. The most common method used for a combination of nanofibrous materials is electro spinning. Using electro spinning, nanofibres are fabricated that have an electric charge, which increases their ability to capture target particles. It has been shown that the nanofiber separator face piece has a moderate pass rate in the appropriate test and has a very high viral filter output compared to different market covers. Ultrasonic innovation has been used for facemask integration [8]. This innovation empowers bonds to be made faster, creating more flexible creases and edges. It was shown that nanofiber channels incorporate careful covers that result in lower air flow restriction and improved filter performance compared to commercial covers. It has been found that nanofiber has better ventilation and more antibacterial exercise than N95 mask respirators and careful veins. Thus, nanomaterials, for example, nanofiber, play a key role in the viability of the masks. Nanofibre sifting face piece respirators consist mainly of gelled submicron, polypropylene nanofibres, and hydrophilic biocide film that can block sufficient microorganisms.

As a result of silver nanoparticles’ antibacterial characteristics, numerous gloves have been manufactured. Along with the masks, nanoparticles have been employed to validate COVID-19 clinical gloves. Silver nanoparticles were confirmed to have veridical action. Considering that COVID-19 infection enters cells through the conversion of angiotensin over 2 receptors, lowering angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 degrees in the body may help to reduce infection. It was recommended that catching infections before they got into phones using nanotechnology on gloves would be a wonderful help. In addition, ACE2 proteins coated with nanoparticles have shown excellent synergist action and chemical reliability, which can be used to make gloves. Nano-matadium containing ACE2 have been proven to be efficient in terms of pollutant reduction. These gloves can protect against infections in the coating film that kills it, and the transmission of COVID-19 was reduced.

These nanomaterials consist of metallic nanoparticles especially TiO2 and AgNPs as well as water-soluble nanostructures that counteract viral properties, which help ensure protection against COVID-19. Nanotechnology offers a few open doors in developing a common sense and ensuring sterilization.

In addition, nanomaterials transmit a flexible mixture into photothermally, electro thermal, photocatalytic, and other light. Several antipollution properties of metallic nanoparticles have also been discovered. For example, AgNPs can be used as a potent disinfectant. Biomolecules and polyamines are rich in sulfur that makes up the bacterium’s inner and outer layers. Deactivation of these atoms, which may be present in SARS-CoV-2, can be achieved by using silver. Antiviral activity can be influenced by a variety of factors, including the size and number of molecules in a compound. Nanoparticles smaller than 20 nm were thought to be more significant interaction with microorganisms that cause microbe death. From now on, they can be used effectively as a COVID-19 sanitizer [9]. Similarly, researchers have developed water-based nano sanitizers that have undergone a number of modifications, including contaminated water, electrolyzed water, and hydrogen peroxide in response to physical inactivity. These nanosanitizers have been tested for the ability to kill microorganisms. According to their findings, there has been a dramatic decline in the biological focus on the hydrogen peroxide system that can be used for corona virus pandemic combat. A sanitizer incorporating TiO2 and AgNPs has been marketed by Biotech Interface Technologies, which creates antibacterial effects.


Antiviral drugs have been tried at the beginning of the COVID-19 trial, for example, lopinavir, chloroquine, remdesivir, ritonavir, and rakuvirim, and have shown promising results against SARS-CoV-2. The main barriers to current antiviral treatment are ineffective diagnosis, which leads to cell cytotoxicity. Nanotechnology lays down some freedom for antiretroviral therapy. The prevalence of new diseases and their variability require novel treatment. The flexibility of nanoparticles makes them readable vectors for the clear transmission of regenerative drugs and focused infection. How to use nanoparticles to fight SARS-CoV-2 can contain systems that contribute to the transmission of infection to the host cell until it is inactive. Inhibition of excess viral protein may result in death of the infection, so focusing on nanoparticles, which are specific to the proteins transmitted by infection, may reduce viral secretion. Natural nanoparticles have been used in the transmission of antimicrobials, such as acyclovir, zidovudine, efavirenz, and dapivirine, to enhance drug bioavailability, drug transfer, and prescribed antiviral action [10].


Lack of information and accessible resources regarding human is tics and components of COVID-19 pathophysiology as well as nano-bio-interface interactive tools that are constantly tested. Nanomaterials may be useful for detecting or working with COVID-19 infection, blocking their activity, and modulating human responses to the fight against the virus, but further testing is needed to determine their multifunctionality. In line with these lines, further studies involving the surface-to-bottom investigation of the relationship between viral particles and nanoparticles are important to obtain additional information on the usefulness, functional tools, and impact of nanoparticles on infection. These data are fundamental in determining appropriate approaches to the outcome, conclusion, and treatment of COVID-19.

In addition, ensuring the safe usage of nanomaterials is a major difficulty. Behavioral changes in nanomaterials in the bloodstream should be thoroughly evaluated and evaluated. The use of decaying nanoparticles is essential to ensure the complete release of the human body. In vivo research should lead to easier understanding of human body nanoparticle toxicity as a function of distance traveled by nanoparticles. In short, this study presents the framework of an excellent class of nanotechnology research for COVID-19 anticipation, diagnosis, and treatment. Significant features of nanomaterials, which include its strong visual and electrochemical properties, controllable sizes, biological compatibility, and cost effectiveness, play an important role in a wide range of applications. Their structures can be easily processed by switching and operating the process using different substrates, providing a great deal of logical performance. Despite their critical progress, research on COVID-19 is still in its infancy and there are still many challenges. In addition, the large area that allows the release of the best nanoparticles is critical in response to the COVID-19 epidemic. The most recommended aspects to be considered in future applications are affordability, sensitivity, fastest and solid, easy equipment and easy delivery to end clients should be produced for immediate COVID-19 diagnosis. The inclusion of nanomaterials, for example, carbon-based nanoparticles, in the recognition gadget can produce more sensitive detection methods in monitoring a patient's long life. While enhancing local sensitivity and specialty, client businesses from planning to flag recognition should be simplified. This can be achieved by combining all the functions into one gadget. The development of a basic, flexible, and wireless gadget can be useful in the testing of COVID-19 in remote areas. Moreover, integrating mobile applications will enable you to track a patient's health status in assessing local health. Conventional therapies can be performed by transferring antiviral nanoparticles to initiate a safe response against disease. We think nanotechnology is useful in combating COVID-19, and further research is needed to provide new sensible information to help the use of nanomaterials in dealing with the COVID-19 episode and future epidemics. To put it bluntly, as the epidemic continues, the development of nanomaterial-based materials is critical to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of COVID-19. Through the innovative work, nanotechnology can help curb the spread of the virus and improve diagnostic implications using just a small sample of living organisms.


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Citation: Alia E (2023) Nanotechnology: Role Development Impact of Nanomedicine on Covid-19 Pandemic Management. J Nanomed Nanotech. 14: 661.

Copyright: ©2023 Alia E. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.