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Research Article - (2017) Volume 9, Issue 2

Geographical Dispersion Pattern of Northern Zagrous Parts in Islam Abad Gharb and Introduction of Biological Shapes Related to Them

Farahnaz Nooraii* and Allahyar Kamarii
Department of Biology, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran
*Corresponding Author: Farahnaz Nooraii, Department of Biology, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

The study of the vegetative coverage of a region in order to exploit its natural sources is of great importance. Islam Abad Gharb is located in Kermanshah between 45, 24 min to 38, 30 min of the eastern longitude and 33, 36 min to 35, 15 min of the northern latitude. Its extent is about 4654, and it is 1335 m above sea level. This city is dry according to amperage formula. It is a mountain city with an average annual rain of 414/72 m. The highest average temperature is 37°C in August, and the lowest average temperature is -20°C in December. The vegetative coverage of the region was determined based on the floristic method, and the biological shape of each plant was determined generally. There are 79 families, 225 genera, and 335 species. Six big families are: Brassicaceae (28 spp.), Gramineae (27 spp.), Papilionaceae (26 spp.), Apiaceae (24 spp.). Compositeae (29 spp.), and Labitate (17 spp.). Therophytes are the most common and compromise 47% of all plants. Others are Hemicryptophytes (24%), Phanerophytes (12%), and Geophytes (10%), that is, 54% of Iranian-Toranian plant.

Keywords: Islam Abade Gharb; Northern Zagrous; Geographical dispersion; Flora

Introduction

Among the countries located in western south Asia, Iran has the most diversity of plants, and it is because of its large extent, climate, and topography. Climate diversity has led to an interesting ecosystem in the country that each family of plant has its own genus and species. Plants are live creatures, and humankind is dependent on them forever because plants are the sources of food, oxygen, energy, main materials, and medicinal drugs. However, plants are not treated by us the same as animals. It may be because they do not show any senility as do animals [1]. Although such an ecosystem is of great importance for Islam Abad Gharb, natural habitats have been extensively destroyed by humankind in different ways, especially through agricultural activities, so many valuable species have vanished. However, a natural ecosystem can be seen in the region, yet researchers have had a less head to it. Islam Abad Gharb is located in Kermanshah [2]. It is bounded by Paveh and Gavanrood in the north, Sarpolzahab and Gillangharb in the west, Ilam in the south, and Kermanshah in the east. It is between 45, 24 min to 38, 30 min of the eastern longitude and 33, 36 min to 35, 15 min of the northern latitude. Its extent is about 4654, and it is 1335 m above sea level. It is a mountain city with an average annual rain of 414/72 m. The highest average temperature is 37°C in August, and the lowest average temperature is –20°C in December. Figure 1 shows the rain curve–temperature of Islam Abade Gharb.

biology-medicine-ombrothermic-curve-islam

Figure 1: Ombrothermic curve of Islam Abad Gharb

Materials and Methods

To introduce the regions’ flora, plants were collected from different regions from early march to late June in 2014. In this investigation, perfect samples were used and all vegetative samples, after the preparation of herbarium, were investigated in Payamenoor’s herbarium and the herbarium of the agricultural faculty of Razi University; their identification was done after being fixed on herbarium sheets.

- Yazd flora [3], Iranica flora [4], herbal plants [5], names of Iranian plants dictionary [6], and plant ranking [7], Iran’s chromophytes [8], Iran’s astragalus [9].

- Iran’s flora, butterfly-shaped family, Kermanshah flora.

- Application of Lu method—phytosociology in the determination of intergenus [10].

- Introduction of growth flora in the drainage basin of kerned [11].

- Introduction of 72 eatable plants in Kermanshah and Kordestan [12].

- Iraq flora [13] and Turkey flora [14].

- Introduction of flora and determination of the biological shape of growth elements [2].

- Common code of families and genus of Iran’s flora [11].

- Investigation of the flora of Dalaho mountain in Kermanshah [1].

- Iran’s weeds [15], herbal plants [5], Europe‘s flora [16].

Raunchier ranking was used for the determination of biological shapes [10]. This ranking is based on the unpleasant condition for growth.

Results

Floristic investigations showed that in the region of study, there are 79 families, 255 genera, and 335 species. The families have the most diversity are Composite (29 spp.), Brassicaceae (28 spp.), Gramineae (27 spp.), Papilionaceae (26 spp.), Apiaceae (24 spp.), Labiateae (17 spp.). The results showed that the Composite family has the most diversity of all (Figure 2).

Plant name and family Karyotype Region plants
Acantholimon olivieri (Jaub. & spach) Boiss. Ch IT
Acanthophyllum caespitosum Boiss. Ch IT
Acer negundo L. Ph ES-IT
Acer monspessulanum L. Ph ES-IT
Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch He IT
Adonis aestivalis L. Th IT
Aegilops crassa Boiss Th ES-IT
Aegilops cylin drica Host. Th SS-IT
Aethionema carneum (Banks et Soland.)
B. Fedtsch.
Th IT
Aethionema grandiflorum Boiss.et Hohen. Th ES-IT
Agropyron trichophorum (Link) Richter He ES-IT
Ajuga chamaecistus Ging. He IT
Alcea hohenackeri (Boiss. & Huet) Boiss. Th IT
Alhagi camelorum Fisch. Ch IT
Alhagi persarum Boiss. & Buhse Th IT
Allium eriophyllum Boiss. Var. eriophyllum Ge SS-IT
Altheae hirsuta L. Th ES-IT
Alyssum strigosum Banks & Soland. Th IT
Alyssum margin atum Steud ex Bioss. Th SS-IT
Alyssum spp. Th IT
Amaranthus retroflexus L. Th IT
Amygdalus haussknechtii
(c. K Schneider.) Bornm
Ph IT
Amygdalus lycioides Spach Var. Ph ES-IT
Amygdalus scoparia Spach. Ph IT
Anchusa italica Retz. He ES-SS-IT
Anchusa cF. He IT
Andrachne telephioides L. He ES-IT
Anisosciadium orientale Dc. Th SS-IT
Anthemis altissima L. Th ES-IT
Anthriscus sylvestris (L.) Hoffm He ES
Antirrhinum sp. Th ES-IT
Onosma macro ph yllum Bornm. He IT
Ornithogalum sp. Ge IT
Ornithogalum tenuifolium Ge IT
Orobanche sp. Th IT
Orobanche alba Steph. Th IT
Orochis anatolica Boiss. Ge IT
Outreya cardui formis Jaub .et spach He ES-IT
Papaver rhoeas L. Th SS-ES-IT
Parietaria alsinifolia Delile. Th SS-IT
Parietaria judaica L. C ES-IT
Phaseolus vulgaris L. Th IT
Phleum iranica Um Brorn. Th ES-IT
Phlomis olivieri Benth. He ES-IT
Phlomis persica Boiss. He ES-IT
Phlomis rigida Labill. He IT
Phlomis sp. He Es-IT
Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. Hel SS-ES-IT
Picnomon acarna (L.) Cass. He ES-IT
Picris strigosa M. B. Subsp. He IT
Pimpinella kostchyana Boiss. He IT
Pimpinella eriocarpa Banks et Soland. Th SS-IT
Pinus eldarica Medw. Ph ES
Pistacia mutica Fisch. et mey. Ph SS-IT
Pisum sativum L. Th SS-ES-IT
Plantago lanceolata L. He SS-ES-IT
Plantago major L. He ES-IT
Platanus orientalis L. Ph IT
Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco Ph IT
Plygonum lusuloides Jaub. & Spach. Th IT
Poa bulbosa L. Th ES-IT
Polygonum alpestre C. A Mey. Th ES-IT
Polygonum sp. Ch ES-IT
Polytrichum sp. Th ES-IT
Populuscaspica Bornm. Ph ES-IT
Potamogeton lucens L. Th ES-IT
Prangos sp. He IT
Prangos ferulaceae (L.) Linadl. He IT
Pterocephalus canus coulter ex Dc. He IT
Pterocephlus kurdicus Vatke. He IT
Punica grantum L. Ph ES-IT
Quercus brantii Lind L. Ph IT
Quercus in fectoria olive. roy, Emp. Ph IT
Quercus longipes Stev. Ph IT
Ranunculus sp. Ge IT
Ranunculus sp. Ge IT
Ranunculus sp. Ge IT
Ranunculus sp. Ge IT
Ranunculus arvensis L. Ge IT
Ranunculus asiaticus L. Ge IT
Ricinus communis L. Th IT
Rosa sp. Ph IT
Rosa sp. Ph IT
Rosularia sempervium Var. Sempervium He IT
Rosularia sempervium (M.B.) Berger He IT
Rumex acetosella L. He IT
Saccharum ravennae (L.) murray He ES-IT
Salix alba L. Ph ES-IT
Salix acmophylla Boiss. Ph ES-IT
Salix excelsa J. F. Gmel Ph ES-IT
Salvia sp. He IT
Salvia bracteata Banks et Soland He IT
Salvia russellii Benth. He IT
Salvia syricca L. He ES-IT
Salvia multicaulis Vahl. He ES-IT
Sanguisorba minor Scop. He ES-IT
Scabiosa calocephala Boiss. Th IT
Scandix pecten-veneris L Th IT
Scariola orientalis (Boiss) Sojak Subsp. He IT
Scirpus lancustris L. Hel IT
Scorzonera phaeopappa (Boiss.) Th IT
Scrophularia deseti Del. Descr. He SS-IT
Scrophularia striata Boiss. He IT
Senecio vulgaris L. Th IT
Senecio vernalis Waldst. & Kit. Th IT
Silene conoidea L. Th IT
Silene dichotoma Ehrh., Beitr. Naturk. Th ES-IT
Silene morganae Freyn, Bull. Th IT
Sinapis au cheri (Boiss.) Th SS-IT
Sinapis arvensis L. Th IT
Sisymbrium irio L. Th IT
Smyrniopsis aucheri Boiss He IT
Smyrnium cordifolium Boiss He IT
Solanum melongena L. Th SS-ES-IT
Solanum nigrum L. Th SS-ES-IT
Solenanthus circinnatus Ledeb. He ES-IT
Sophora alopecuroides L. He ES-IT
Sorghum bicolor (L.) moench. Ge ES-IT
Sorghum halo pensis (L.) pers Ge ES-IT
Spartium junceum L. Ph ES-IT
Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleiden Hy ES-IT
Stachys benthamiana Boiss He IT
Stachys kermanshahensis Rech. F. Pl. He IT
Stachysin inflata Bench. He IT
Sterigmostemum Sulphureum (Banks et Soland.) Bornm. Th SS-IT
Stipa barba ta Desf. He IT
Tamarix sp. Ph It
Taraxacum officinale Weber. He IT
Taraxacum sp. He IT
Teucrium melissoides Boiss. et Hausskn. et Boiss. He SS-IT
Teucrium polium L. He IT
Teucrium parviflorum Schreb. He IT
Physalis divaricata D.Don TH ES-IT
Theligonum cynocrambe L. Th IT
Thymelaea mesopotamica (C. Jeffrey)
B. Peterson
Th SS-IT
Trifolium dasyurum C. Presl. Th ES-IT
Trifolium grandi forum Schreb. Th SS-ES-IT
Trifolium purpureum L. He IT
Trifolium tomentosum L. Th ES-IT
Trifolium campestre Schreb. TH SS-ES-IT
Trigonella foenum – graecum L. Th SS-IT
Turgenia latifolia (L.) Hoffm. Th ES-IT
Typha latifolia L. Hel SS-IT
Ulmus campetris L. Ph ES-IT
Umbelicus intermedius Boiss. He ES-IT
Umbilicus tropaeolifolius Boiss He IT
Urtica dioica L. Var. dioica He SS-ES-IT
Urtica pilulifera L. Th SS-ES-IT
Vaccaria grand iflora (fisch. ex Dc.) Th IT
Vaccaria liniflora (Boiss& Hausskn) Th IT
Valeriana sp. Th ES-IT
Valerianella dufresnia Bunge et Boiss. Th ES-ES-IT
Vallerianella vesicaria (L.) moench, Meth. Th ES-IT
Verbascum sp. He ES-IT
Verbascum sp. He IT
Verbascum sp. He ES-IT
Verbascum cheiranthifolium Boiss.
Diagn.
He ES-IT
Verbascum nudicaule (Wydl.) Takht. Th IT
Veronica anagallis-aquatic L. Subsp.
Oxycarpa (Boiss.)
Th IT
Vicia hyrcanica Fisch. et C.Amey Th IT
Viola occulta Lehmann, Ind. Sem.
Hort. Bot.
Th ES-IT
Viola modesta Fenzl. Th IT
Viola tricolor L. var. arvensis Murr. Th ES-IT
Xantium spinosum L. Th IT
Xantium strumarium L. Th ES-IT
Xeranthemum squarrosum Boiss. He ES-IT
Zeugandra iranica P. H. davis Hook. He IT
Ziziphora clinopodioides Lem. He IT
Ziziphora capitata L. Th IT
Ziziphora tenuir L. Th ES-IT
Zoegea leptaurea L. Th IT

Table 1: Plant name and family in the study area (Karyotype and region

biology-medicine-piechart-plant-species-family

Figure 2: Piechart of plant species distribution in high species family

biology-medicine-piechart-plant-species-genus

Figure 3: Pie chart of plant species distribution in high species genus

biology-medicine-the-percentage-growth-elements

Figure 4: The percentage of growth elements of the regions’ plants

Moreover, the floristic investigation in the region show that the subspecies of Acer monspessulanum L. grow in all the growth regions of Zagrous, including western Azarbaijan, Kordestan, Kermanshah, Ilam, Lorestan, Gharmahal Bakhtiari, Isfahan, Kohgiluyeh and Boyerahmad, Fars, and Khozestan.

The largest genera in the region are Euphorbai (7 spp.), Allium (5 spp.), Trifolium (5 spp.), Convolvulus (4 spp.), Hordum (4 spp.), and Salvia (4 spp).

The percentages of biological shapes of plants in the region are: 47% (Therophytes), 24% (Hemichriptophytes), 12% (Phanerophytes), 10% (Geophytes), 30% (Chamaephytes), 2% (Hydrophytes), and 2% (Halophytes).

The geographical dispersion of the plants in the region is as follows:

Iranian-Toranian (54%), European-Syrian (30%), Sahara-Sydney (11%), and worldwide (5%).

Discussion

The flora of the region has been investigated for the first time, and it was clear that the flora has 255 genera, 335 species, and 79 families. Composite (29 spp), Brassicaceae (28 spp), Gramineae (27 spp), Papilionaceae (26 spp), Apliaceae (24 spp.), and Labiateae (17 spp) are the most common. Euphorbiae (7 spp.) is the largest genus in the region, and the lowest growth shapes belong to: trophits (47%), Hydrophytes (02%), Halophytes (02%).

In terms of vegetative geography, Islam Abad Gharb belongs to Iranian-Toranian area, and it is confirmed by the results that show that more than half of the species (54%) are in this region. The comparison of chorotypes of plants in different habitats show that Iranian-toranian species increases with the increase in height while Sahara-Sandi species decreases. Among the trees and shrubs are Quercus brantii, Q. infectoria, Q. libani, var persica: Cratagus pontica, Daphne mucronata, Cerasus microcarpa subsp. tortuosa, Acer monspessulanum subsp., and Amygdalus orientalis subsp. orientalis.

Acknowledgment

This research was funded by the Payame Noor University (PNU).

References

Citation: Nooraii F, Kamarii A (2017) Geographical Dispersion Pattern of Northern Zagrous Parts in Islam Abad Gharb and Introduction of Biological Shapes Related to Them. Biol Med (Aligarh) 9: 388.

Copyright: © 2017 Nooraii and Kamarii. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.