Research Article - (2017) Volume 8, Issue 11

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) Analysis of Aqueous Extract of Daniellia oliveri Stem Bark

Ojochenemi E Yakubu*, Olawale Otitoju and Joshua Onwuka
Department of Biochemistry, Federal University Wukari, Nigeria
*Corresponding Author: Ojochenemi E Yakubu, Department of Biochemistry, Federal University Wukari, Wukari, Nigeria, Tel: +81-78-803-6481 Email:

Abstract

A novel Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) analysis of aqueous extract of Daniellia oliveri stem bark was performed to identify the composition and percentage abundance of the various phytochemical constituents of Daniellia oliveri stem bark. The extract was obtained using 1:4 (w/v) of the pulverized stem bark in distilled water. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analysis was carried out on a Perkin Elmer Turbo Mass Spectrophotometer while measurement of peak areas and data processing were carried out by Turbo-Mass- OCPTVS-Demo SPL software and spectrums of the components were compared with the database of spectrum of known components stored in the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry library. The phytochemical constituents identified are some fatty acids such as oleic acid, fatty acid methyl esters such as 1-(hydroxymethyl)-1, 2-ethanediyl ester and some volatile organic substances such as 1, 1, 1, 4-Tetramethyl-4-chloro-4-vinyl-1, 4-disilabutane. The presence of these compounds justifies the use of some parts of the plant for various elements in folklore and can be advised as a plant of phytopharmaceutical and industrial importance.

Keywords: GC-MS; Medicinal plants; Daniellia oliveri; Stem bark; Phytochemicals

Introduction

Awareness of medicinal plants usage is a result of the many years of struggles against illnesses due to which man learned to pursue drugs in barks, seeds, fruit bodies, leaves and other parts of the plants [1]. Ethnobotany (the study of traditional human uses of plants) is recognized as an effective way to discover future medicines. In 2001, researchers identified 122 compounds used in modern medicine which were derived from "ethnomedical" plant sources; 80% of these have had an ethnomedical use identical or related to the current use of the active elements of the plant [2]. It has been estimated that herbal medicines serve about 80% of the world's population health need for millions of people in the rural areas of developing countries and more than 65% of the global population use traditional medicine for basic health care [3].

In Africa, Daniellia oliveri is found in wooded savannahs but in the Sudano-Guinean zone, it is common in dry forests. This is a tall tree with conical crown whose shape is generally tapered [4]. It is a big tree of 18.29 m-24.38 m high and reaching 3.66 m in girth, sometimes larger. Bark pale grey, thick, much fissured, flaking off in large irregular thin patches; slash dark red with fine white streaks, exuding sweet smelling gummy, substance after sometime [5].

Materials and Method

Plant specimen

The stem bark of D. olieveri was collected within the premises of Federal University Wukari Taraba State. They were identified and authenticated in the Department of Biological Sciences, Federal University Wukari. The stem bark was rinsed; air dried at room temperature and pulverized using pestle and mortar.

Extraction

Exactly 270 g of the sample was weighed and dissolved in 1350 ml of distilled water (1:5 w/v) for 48 h after which it was filtered: first using a clean white sieving mesh and further with Whatman No. 1 filter paper. The filtrate was concentrated using a thermostat water cabinet at 40°C for days. The concentrated extracts were then transferred to air-tight containers, corked and preserved in the refrigerator at 4°C until required for the experiment [6].

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis

This was carried out on a Perkin Elmer Turbo Mass Spectrophotometer (Norwalk, CTO6859, and USA) which includes a Perkin Elmer Auto sampler XLGC (Table 1). The column used was Perkin Elmer Elite-5 capillary column measuring 30 m × 0.25 mm with a film thickness of 0.25 mm composed of 95% Dimethyl polysiloxane. The carrier gas used was Helium at a flow rate of 0.5 ml/ min. 1 μl sample injection volume was utilized. The inlet temperature was maintained as 250°C. The oven temperature was programmed initially at 110°C for 4 min, then an increase to 240°C. And then programmed to increase to 280°C at a rate of 20°C ending with a 5 min. Total run time was 90 min. The Mass Spectrometry transfer line was maintained at a temperature of 200°C. The source temperature was maintained at 180°C. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry was analysed using electron impact ionization at 70 eV and data was evaluated using total ion count (TIC) for compound identification and quantification. The spectrums of the components were compared with the database of spectrum of known components stored in the GC-MS library. Measurement of peak areas and data processing were carried out by Turbo-Mass-OCPTVS-Demo SPL software [7].

Peak Retention time IUPAC name Chemical structure Nature and uses
1 32.3716 n-Hexadecanoic acid Image
C16H32O2
Fatty acid; soaps, cosmetics
2 32.7906 15-Hydroxypentadecanoic acid Image
C15H30O3
Fatty acid; lactonization, ω-hydroxyl-ase studies
3 33.0809 n-Hexadecanoic acid Image
C16H32O2
Fatty acid; as an anti-inflammatory agent and antioxidant
4 33.1148 Tetradecanoic acid Image
C14H28O2
Fatty acid; lipid anchor in biomembranes, topical medicinal preparations
5 36.9148 Glycidyl palmitate Image
C19H36O3
Fatty acid; preparation of lysophosphatidic acids which inhibit apoptosis,
6 37.0637 Tetradecanoic acid Image
C14H28O2
Fatty acid; component of cosmetics, shaving cream
7 39.8625 Octadecanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-1, 3-propanediyl ester Image
C39H76O5
Fatty acid; antiseptic and haemostatic activity
8 40.6906 Glycidyl palmitate Image
C19H36O3
Fatty acid; preparation of lysophosphatidic acids which inhibit apoptosis
9 40.9025 Octadecanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-1, 3-propanediyl ester Image
C39H76O5
Fatty acid; Fatty acid; antiseptic and haemostatic activity
10 42.0927 cis-Vaccenic acid Image
C18H34O2
Fatty acid; lowers total cholesterol and triglycerides levels
11 42.8762 Oleic acid Image
C18H34O2
Fatty acid; as emulsifying agent, as an emollient
12 42.9755 Cyclopentadecanone, 2-hydroxy- Image
C15H28O2
Volatile organic compound; component of paint, varnishes and glue
13 43.7866 9-Octadecenal, (Z)- Image
C18H34O
Volatile organic compound; component of flavouring agent in foods
14 43.9923 trans-13-Octadecenoic acid Image
C18H34O2
Fatty acid; component of margarines
15 44.1598 15-Hydroxypentadecanoic acid Image
C15H30O3
Fatty acid; lactonization, ω-hydroxylase studies
16 44.2778 Lauric anhydride Image
C24H46O3
Fatty acid; increase high density lipoprotein, investigate molar mass of unknown substance
17 44.5425 Lauric acid, 3, 4-dichlorophenyl ester Image
C10H10Cl2O2
Fatty acid; refatting agents for cosmetic formulations
18 44.6384 Carazolol Image
C18H22N2O2
Pale yellow crystalline powder; act as beta adrenoceptor antagonist to prevent stress, to alleviate stress
19 44.8747 Dodecanoic acid, 1-(hydroxymethyl)-1, 2-ethanediyl ester Image
C35H68O5
Fatty acid; used as emulsifiers for cream, milky lotion and hair conditioner.
20 45.1196 Dodecanoic acid, 1-(hydroxymethyl)-1, 2-ethanediyl ester Image
C35H68O5
Fatty acid; as superfattening agent, thickeners and reforming agent.
21 46.2486 Nonacosan-14-one Image
C29H58O
As a composition of wax; prevent dehydration
22 46.9733 Lauric acid, 3, 4-dichlorophenyl ester Image
C10H10Cl2O2
Fatty acid; refatting agents for cosmetic formulations
23 48.3694 Vanadium, (.eta.7-cycloheptatrienylium)(.eta.5-2, 4-cyclopentadien-1-yl)- Image
C12H12V-8
Enhance nutrient uptake in plant
24 48.9428 Tetrahydrofuran-2-carboxylic acid, dibenzofuran-3-ylamide Image Component of chemotherapeutic agents
25 49.243 Dodecanoic acid, 1-(hydroxymethyl)-1, 2-ethanediyl ester Image
C35H68O5
Fatty acid; as superfattening agent, thickeners and reforming agent.
26 49.6507 Heptadecanolide Image
C17H32O2
Fatty acid; flavouring agent, as perfume
27 50.8762 Octasiloxane, 1, 1, 3, 3, 5, 5, 7,7, 9, 9, 11, 11, 13, 13, 15, 15-hexadecamethyl Image
C16H48O7Si8
Volatile organic compound; Anti microbial activity

Table 1: Different compounds obtained from Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry analysis of aqueous extract of Daniellia oliveri stem bark.

Results and Discussion

The aqueous extract of Daniellia oliveri stem bark revealed several peaks which represents different compounds as shown in the total ion chromatogram by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry analysis. The peaks in the chromatogram were integrated and were compared with the database of spectrum of known components stored in the Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry library.

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry analysis of the aqueous extract of Daniellia oliveri stem bark revealed the presence of different fatty acids, fatty acids methyl esters and some volatile organic compounds. Glycidyl palmitate is a fatty acid with the molecular formula C19H36O3 is essential in the preparation of lysophosphatidic acids which inhibit apoptosis. Heptadecanolide is a fatty acid with the molecular formula C17H32O2 is a component of flavouring agent and perfumes [8].

Dodecanoic acid, 1-(hydroxymethyl)-1, 2-ethanediyl ester is a fatty acid ester with the molecular formula C35H68O5 which is used as emulsifiers for cream, milky lotion and hair conditioner. Tetrahydrofuran-2-carboxylic acid, dibenzofuran-3-ylamide is a volatile organic compound is a component of chemotherapeutic agents. Lauric anhydride is a fatty acid with the molecular formula C24H46O3 which is used to increase high density lipoprotein, investigate molar mass of unknown substance, treatment of wool in presence of cresol and in wafer form as a carrier in the study of drug release.

Tetradecanoic acid is a fatty acid with the molecular formula C14H28O2 which are lipid anchors in biomembranes [9]. Vanadium, (eta.7-cycloheptatrienylium) (eta.5-2, 4-cyclopentadien-1-yl)-is a volatile organic compound with the molecular formula C12H12V-8 which enhances nutrient uptake in plants. cis-Vaccenic acid is a fatty acid with the molecular formula C18H34O2 which lowers total cholesterol and triglycerides levels.

Dodecanoic acid, 1-(hydroxymethyl)-1, 2-ethanediyl ester is a fatty acid ester which is used as emulsifiers for cream, milky lotion and hair conditioner is an important raw material in the cosmetic industry.

Lauric anhydride is a fatty acid which is used to increase high density lipoprotein, investigate molar mass of unknown substance, treatment of wool in presence of cresol and in wafer form as a carrier in the study of drug release; is an important part of human diet and used in analytical chemistry. Tetrahydrofuran-2-carboxylic acid, dibenzofuran-3-ylamide is a volatile organic compound used in chemotherapy. In the food industry, Heptadecanolide is an important component of food additive.

Conclusion

Plants are natural reservoirs of several phytonutrients and compounds which are inevitable and essential to life in general. The phytochemical constituents of aqueous extract of Daniellia oliveri stem bark revealed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry analysis depicts its importance in folklore, phytopharmaceuticals, cosmetic and food industries (Figure 1).

pharmaceutica-analytica-acta-Daniellia-oliveri-stem

Figure 1: Total ion chromatogram of aqueous extract of Daniellia oliveri stem bark.

References

Citation: Yakubu EO, Otitoju O, Onwuka J (2017) Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) Analysis of Aqueous Extract of Daniellia oliveri Stem Bark. Pharm Anal Acta 8: 568.

Copyright: © 2017 Yakubu EO, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.