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Short Communication - (2022) Volume 21, Issue 12

Environments for Oral Microbiome that can Prevent Tooth Decay
Aceline Martin*
Department of Oral Sciences, Jean Monnet University, Saint-Étienne, France
*Correspondence: Aceline Martin, Department of Oral Sciences, Jean Monnet University, Saint-Étienne, France, Email:

Received: 21-Nov-2022, Manuscript No. OHDM-22-19416; Editor assigned: 24-Nov-2022, Pre QC No. OHDM-22-19416 (PQ); Reviewed: 08-Dec-2022, QC No. OHDM-22-19416; Revised: 15-Dec-2022, Manuscript No. OHDM-22-19416 (R); Published: 22-Dec-2022, DOI: 10.35248/2247-2452.22.21.1034


The study of oral bacteria and how they interact with one another and/or with the host is known as oral microbiology. The environment in the throat and mouth is conducive to the development of the unique bacteria that live there. It offers a source of nutrients, water, and a comfortable temperature. The microorganisms that live in the mouth cling to the gums and teeth to prevent them from being mechanically flushed to the stomach, where hydrochloric acid kills acid-sensitive microbes. In biofilms, bacteria assemble on both the soft and hard oral tissues. For oral bacteria, bacterial adherence is particularly crucial [1]. Oral bacteria have developed strategies to sense their surroundings and avoid or alter their hosts. The ecological niche created by the mucosal epithelium and tooth surface is occupied by bacteria. The acidity, oxygen level and access at specific oral contacts, mechanical forces acting on oral substrate surface, salivary and fluid flow in the oral cavity, and age are notable factors that have been shown to influence the microbial colonization of the oral cavity. Dental plaque microorganisms and the natural host defense mechanism are in a dynamic equilibrium. The contribution played by oral bacteria in dental cavities and periodontal disease [2], the two most common dental illnesses, is particularly intriguing. Furthermore, research has linked poor dental health to the body’s propensity to harbour oral microbes, which can harm both cardiac and cognitive health.

Dental cavities are an example of how the oral micro biome, which is primarily made up of bacteria that have evolved immune system resistance, can influence the recipient for its own purposes [3]. The environment in the throat and mouth supports the development of the localized bacteria that are prevalent there. It offers a source of nutrients, water, and a comfortable temperature. A new-born baby’s mouth cavity is initially sterile but soon becomes colonised by bacteria like Streptococcus salivary. Streptococci and Streptococcus sanguinis begin to colonise the tooth surface and gingiva with the emergence of the canines during the first year. Other streptococci strains cling tenaciously to the cheeks and gums but not the molars [4]. Several anaerobic organisms can be found in the gingival crevice area. Around puberty, spirochetes and bacteria start to inhabit the mouth. The contribution played by oral bacteria in tooth decay and periodontal disease, the two most common dental illnesses, is particularly intriguing. The bacterial population that is attached to the surface of the tooth forms the dental plaque, which is also known as a biofilm. Despite claims to the contrary, the microbial population of the coating is not in direct touch with the tooth’s enamel, despite the fact that it is supposed to be adherent to the tooth surface. Instead, the development of the biofilm is started by bacteria with the capacity to bind to the periodontal pocket, which has certain salivary protein, on the enamel of the teeth. Dental plaque develops an antibacterial matrix as it ages, during which the bacterial population expands and changes. Saliva has a significant impact on the oral micro biome [5]. Oral mucous contains more than 800 different bacterial species, the gingival crevice contains 1,300 different species, and dental plaque contains close to 1,000 different species. Since saliva is primarily water and a lot of resources pass through the mouth every day, the mouth provides a rich environment for thousands of species of bacteria. Saliva exchange while kissing results in the transfer of at least 80 million bacteria in just 10 seconds the impact is temporary, though, as each person quickly returns to balance. In a healthy mouth, saliva swiftly removes the bacterial biofilm created by the sugar fermentation process with the exception of dental plaque. When the equilibrium is off, oral microbes proliferate from out control and bring on oral disorders including tooth decay and gum disease. Numerous studies have connected bad oral hygiene to bacterial infections caused by pathogenic agents. To stop the development of the oral microbiota or illnesses of the mouth, numerous aspects of oral health must be maintained. The substance that sticks to the teeth is called dental plaque and is made up of bacteria, salivary polymers, and microbial extracellular products. A biofilm known as plaque forms on the dental surfaces. Dental illness is caused by the excessive concentrations of photobiotic that are exposed to the teeth and oral tissues as a result of the accumulation of germs. If plaque is not removed by brushing or flossing, it can harden into tartar and cause gingivitis or gum disease.