Scheduled supplementary issues
Indexed In
  • Open J Gate
  • Genamics JournalSeek
  • CiteFactor
  • Cosmos IF
  • Scimago
  • Ulrich's Periodicals Directory
  • Electronic Journals Library
  • RefSeek
  • Hamdard University
  • EBSCO A-Z
  • Directory of Abstract Indexing for Journals
  • OCLC- WorldCat
  • Proquest Summons
  • Scholarsteer
  • ROAD
  • Virtual Library of Biology (vifabio)
  • Publons
  • Geneva Foundation for Medical Education and Research
  • Google Scholar
Share This Page
Journal Flyer
Flyer image

Research Article - (2015) Volume 7, Issue 4

Embryonic Diffrentiation of the Colon of One Humped Camel (Camelus Dromedarius): A Histomorphology

Bello A1*, Onyeanusi BI2, Sonfada ML1, Umaru MA1, Onu JE, Hena SA1, Danmaigoro A1, Oyelowo FO1, Baraya YS1, Onimisi BO1 and Aliyu A1
1Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria
2Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
*Corresponding Author: Dr. Bello A, Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria, Tel: 234(0)8039687589 Email:

Abstract

A study involving histomorphological differentiation was conducted on the colon of 35 foetuses (both sex) of the one-humped camel collected from the Sokoto metropolitan abattoir, over a period of five months at different gestational ages. The approximate age of the fetuses was estimated and categorized into first, second and third trimester. Grossly, the color of the large intestine was whitish at first trimester and grayish to white in second and third trimester. The colon was divided into three main portions namely the ascending colon, the coiled and the descending part which formed the long part of the colon in second and third trimesters. At first trimester the coiled part was not differentiated but divided into two parts such as the centripetal and centrifugal part at second and third trimester. Histological observation of the tissues in this study revealed a complete structure of the tubular organ. The colon was found to consist of four layers namely: Tunica mucosa, Tunica sub mucosa, Tunica muscularis and Tunica serosa. The epithelium of the Tunica mucosa was stratified squamous epithelium with varying degree of stratification at first trimester and transformed to low columnar /cuboidal epithelium at second trimester. At third trimester, the epithelium was simple columnar epithelium. The lamina propria mucosa was found absent at first trimester but prominent at second and third trimester. The Lamina muscularis mucosa was found prominent at third trimester but not identified at first and second trimester. At first trimester of age tunica submucosa was prominent while at second trimester, it consisted of connective tissue cells and fibres scattered all over the layers with preliminary blood vessels. The cells and fibres were undifferentiated at this stage. There was no evidence of lymphatic nodular cells within the layer. At third trimester of age, the connective tissues and blood vessels were found prominent and the lymphatic nodular cells were found throughout the length of the colon. The tunica muscularis of camel colon consist of inner skeletal and outer longitudinal smooth muscle layers. At first trimester this layer did not differentiate into these two zones but only longitudinal orientation of smooth muscle layer. At second trimester, the layers of two zones with clear demarcation were observed. A thin layer of connective tissue comprising of undifferentiated cells lined the colon externally was observed in all the stages of development. Based on the above findings, it showed that development of the camels’ colon was histologically in succession and different from other domestic animals by having an extensive skeletal muscle at the tunica muscularis.

Keywords: Camel, Colon, Embryonic differenciation, Histomorphology, Prenatal development

Introduction

The prime function of the colon as part of the large intestine is to reclaim excess moisture and return it to the body [1]. In the process, fecal balls are formed, which can be passed through the rectum and are expelled out the anus [2]. The digestive anatomy and physiology of dromedarian camel at embryonic level is least understood when compared to Llama, Guanaco, Cattle, Sheep, Goat and Pig [2,3]. The description of dromedarian camel is usually made as if it is identical with Llama specie [2,3]. Though, they are pseudo-ruminants that possess a three-chambered stomach, lacking the omasum that is part of the four-chambered stomach of the order Ruminantia [3,4]. The true camels (Camelus dromedarius and Camelus bacterianus) are closely related anatomically to the South American Camelids [5-10].

Research work dealing with morphology, physiology, pathology, gross and developmental anatomy of various organs and system of dromedarian camel has been carried out in many countries using foetal [5,10,11] and adult camel [1,3,11-17] but little attentions have been paid for the developmental changes of the caudal part of the intestine of the camel fetus. Thus, paucity of information on the prenatal development of camel colon exists; hence the present study was undertaken to bridge the information gap.

Materials and Methods

The study was carried out on 35 foetuses (both sexes) of the onehumped camel collected from the metropolitan abattoir, Sokoto using standard animal ethics approved by the government, at different gestational ages. The collected foetuses were then taken to the Veterinary Anatomy laboratory of Usmanu Danfodiyo University; where the weight and age of the foetus were determined. The foetal body weight was measured using electrical (digital) weighing balance for the smaller foetuses and compression spring balance (AT-1422), size C-1, sensitivity of 20 kg × 50 g in Kilogram for the bigger foetuses. The approximate age of the foetuses was estimated by using the following formula adopted by El-wishy et al. [12].

GA = (CVRL + 23.99)/0.366, Where GA is age in days and CVRL is the Crown Vertebral Rump Length.

Fetuses below 130 days were designated as first trimester, 131- 260 days as second trimester and 261 - 390 days as third trimester [3]. Crown Vertebral Rump Length (CVRL) was measured (cm) as a curved line along the vertebral column from the point of the anterior fontanel or the frontal bone following the vertebral curvature to the base of the tail. Based on this, foetal samples were divided into 3 main groups as described by Bello et al. [18]. The digestive tract of each fetus was collected by placing the fetus on dorsal recumbency and a midventral skin incision was made via the abdomino-pelvic region down to the thoracic, to the neck up to the inter-mandibular space in order to remove the entire digestive tract.

1 cm2 thick of sample from each group was collected and fixed in 10% formalin solution. After fixation was achieved, the tissue sample was processed for paraffin blocks preparation. The sections of 5 μm were subjected to haematoxylin and eosin for routine morphology. The standard sections were examined under light microscope and micrographs taken using motic cam camera with 2.0 mega pixel.

Results and Discussion

The current study attempted to contribution to the histological differentiation of the camel large intestine. Result of the investigation shown that there was an increase in the body weight, organ weight and individual segments of the large intestine in the fetuses with advancement in gestation period (Table 1). This is in agreement with the observations of Jamdar and Ema [6] and Sonfada [21], who observed obvious body weight increase with advancement of gestation period in different species of animals. Bello et al. [18-21] suggested that nutritional status and health condition of the dam played a vital role in the development of the fetus hence increase in weight of the fetus.

Parameters First Trimester Second Trimester Third Trimester
Number of sample (N) 13 11 11
CVRL (cm) 20.06 ± 3.0 60.27 ± 4.0 103.83 ± 6.0
Fetal weight (Kg) 1.40 ± 0. 6 6.10 ± 0.5 17.87 ± 0.6

Table 1: The CVRL and weight of fetuses at various trimesters (mean±SEM).

Grossly, the color of the large intestine was whitish at first trimester and grayish to white in second and third trimester. The color of the large intestine was whitish at first trimester and grayish to white in second and third trimester. The colon was divided into three main portions namely the ascending colon, the coiled and the descending part which formed the long part of the colon in second and third trimesters. At first trimester the coiled part was not differentiated but divided into two parts such as the centripetal and centrifugal part at second and third trimester (Figure 1). Similar findings were reported on the color and divisions of colon of various animals at different gestational ages such as Llama according to Smuts and Benzuidenhout [22] and nutria according to Perez et al. [10] On the other hand, the ascending part was not found in sheep [22], cattle and pampas deer [23]. While in horse, there were divided in to four major parts with three flexure (sterna flexure, pelvic flexure and diaphragmatic flexure) prenatally [22]. The colon was divided into three main portions namely the ascending colon, the coiled and the descending part which formed the long part of the colon in second and third trimesters. At first trimester the coiled part was not differentiated but divided into two parts such as the centripetal and centrifugal part at second and third trimester. These findings agreed with previous work on Llama [22], pampas deer [10], sheep [9] and cattle.

biology-and-medicine-Photograph-showing

Figure 1: Photograph showing the entire digestive tract of camel fetus at first trimester with no clear demarcation in the small intestine (Sm); colon (B), abomasum (Black arrow) and ileum (L), Ampullae (Green arrow), and rumen (Rm) 50x.

The internal mucosa of the colon of the camel was pinkish at first trimester and grayish in color at second and third trimester, with thin longitudinal folds at the ascending part and crossed longitudinal and circular folds at the coiled part. This is in line with the findings of some researchers, who reported that the internal mucosa of large intestine of other domestic animals had circular folds "Plicae Circulares" [15,23].

At first trimester, the ascending part was small, straight and elliptical in shape. At second and third trimesters, the ascending part of the colon was prominent, large and rounded in shape followed by coiled part. The ascending part was directed craniodorsally forming the cranial flexure. The study findings agree with those reported in Llama by Smuts and Benzuidenhout [22] who concluded that the colon begins at the caeco-colic junction which is situated on the right side below the tenth costochondal junction at second trimester.

Histologically, observation of the tissues in this study revealed a complete structure of the tubular organ. The colon was found to consist of four layers namely: Tunica mucosa, Tunica sub mucosa, Tunica muscularis and Tunica serosa. The distinguishing features observed in the developmental stage at tunica mucosa were, lamina epithalialis, lamina propria mucosa and lamina muscularis mucosa. At tunica muscularis the divisions were inner circular muscularis layer and outer longitudinal muscularis layer (Figures 1 and 2).

biology-and-medicine-entire-digestive

Figure 2: Photograph showing the entire digestive tract of camel fetus at third trimester with clear demarcation in the small intestine; colon (B), jejunum (C) and ileum (D),oesophagus (1) caecum (E), colon (2) and rectum (3) 50x.

From the study, the epithelium of the Tunica mucosa was stratified squamous epithelium with varying degree of stratification along the length at first trimester (Figure 3) and transformed to low collumnar / cuboidal epithelium at second trimester (Figure 4). At third trimester, the epithelium was simple collumnar epithelium (Figure 5). Similar observations were seen on Llama, cow, sheep, horse, rodent, human, monkey, dog and cat [1-4,8,11-13,16,22,24,25].

biology-and-medicine-Transverse-section

Figure 3: Transverse section of the Colon at first trimester showing Epithelium (Tmuc) with Villi (V) Submucosa (red arrow), tunica muscularis (blue arrow) with evidence of Skeletal muscle (black arrow), serosa (Green arrow), 400x.

biology-and-medicine-second-trimester

Figure 4: Transverse section of the Colon at second trimester showing Epithelium (Tmuc) with Villi (V) and microvilli (mV), Submucosa (Sub), internal (Green arrow) layer of tunica muscularis, external (longitudinal) (Blue arrow) layer of tunica muscularis (Tm1), serosa (Black arrow), 400x.

biology-and-medicine-third-trimester

Figure 5: Transverse section of the Colon at third trimester showing Epithelium (Tmuc) with Villi (V) and microvilli (mV), Submucosa (Green arrow), internal layer of tunica muscularis (Skeletal), external (longitudinal) (Blue arrow) layer of tunica muscularis (Tm1), serosa (Black arrow), 400x.

The lamina propoia mucosa was found absent at first trimester but prominent at second and third trimester (Figures 4 and 5). The Lamina mascularis mucosa was found prominent at third trimester but not identified at first and second trimester. The above finding showed that the development of the laminae of the camel’s colon was in succession.

At first trimester of age tunica submucosa was prominent (Figure 3) while at second trimester, it consisted of connective tissue cells and fibres scattered all over the layers with preliminary blood vessels. The cells and fibres were undifferentiated at this stage. There was no evidence of lymphatic nodular cells within the layer (Figure 3). At third trimester of age, the connective tissues and blood vessels were found prominent and the lymphatic nodular cells were found throughout the length of the colon. The above findings were contrary to those of ruminant, horse and cat which showed the presence of submucosa lymphatic nodular cells at the ascending part, coiled part and the descending part region only.

The tunica muscularis of camel colon consist of inner skeletal and outer longitudinal smooth muscle layers (Figure 3). At first trimester this layer did not differentiate into these two zones but only longitudinal orientation of smooth muscle layer (Figure 3). At second and third trimester, the layers of two zones with clear demarcation were observed (Figures 4 and 5). While at third trimester, the inner circular layer appeared to be much thicker than the outer longitudinal layer (Figure 4). The above finding was in conformity with that of Llama [26] goat and buffalo fetuses.

A thin layer of connective tissue comprising of undifferentiated cells lined the colon externally was observed in all the stages of development. This was observed at first trimester and became well developed at second and third trimester of age (Figures 3-5).

Conclusion

Based on the above findings, it showed that development of the camels’ colon was histologically in succession and different from other domestic animals by having an extensive skeletal muscle at the tunica muscularis. The information obtained in this study will serve as a baseline data for the camel specie in this environment.

Acknowledgements

I wish to show my sincere gratitude to Mr. M.I Jimoh and Mr. O. Olushola of the department of veterinary Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto, Nigeria for a job well-done in preparing the histological slide.

References

Citation: Bello A, Onyeanusi BI, Sonfada ML, JE Umao, Hena SA et al., (2015) Embryonic Diffrentiation of the Colon of One Humped Camel (Camelus Dromedarius): A Histomorphology. Biol Med (Aligarh) 7:242.

Copyright: © 2015 Bello A, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.