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Commentry - (2022) Volume 21, Issue 3

Commentary on Hyperdontia (supernumerary teeth)
Sreekanth Kumar*
 
Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Saraswathi Danwantri Dental College and Hospital, Parbhani, India
 
*Correspondence: Sreekanth Kumar, Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Saraswathi Danwantri Dental College and Hospital, Parbhani, India, Email:

Received: 01-Mar-2022, Manuscript No. OHDM-22-16099; Editor assigned: 03-Mar-2022, Pre QC No. OHDM-22-16099 (PQ); Reviewed: 17-Mar-2022, QC No. OHDM-22-16099; Revised: 22-Mar-2022, Manuscript No. OHDM-22-16099 (R); Published: 29-Mar-2022, DOI: 10.35248/2247-2452.22.21.988

Introduction

Hyperdontia, also known as excess teeth, are a condition that causes too many teeth to grow in the mouth. These extra teeth are sometimes called supernumerary teeth. They can grow anywhere in the curved area where the teeth attach to the jaw. This area is known as the dental arch. Supernumerary Teeth (ST) are odontostomatologic anomaly of teeth characterized by the presence of an excess of teeth compared to normal tooth formulations. This condition is common in several congenital hereditary disorders such as Gardner’s syndrome, cleidocranial dysplasia, and cleft lip and palate. The 20 teeth that grow as a child are called deciduous teeth or baby teeth. The 32 adult teeth they replace are called permanent teeth. You can have extra deciduous teeth or permanent teeth with hyperdontia, but extra deciduous teeth are more common.

Types of Hyperdontia

Types of Extra teeth can either be “supplemental” and can have the same shape and anatomy as adjacent teeth. Or it could be “rudimentary “. In that case, it has an unusual shape and is often smaller than the surrounding teeth. The dentist can also classify a trace tooth as a “tuberculate” if it is tube or barrel-shaped. The rudimentary teeth are instead “conical” and may have a wide root and a narrow tip. There are two different ways to classify Hyperdontia based on shape and location [1].

Categorization Based on Shapes

Supplemental mean that the extra teeth are shaped like the teeth that are growing next to them. Tuberculate mean teeth with multiple cusps are called barrel teeth. Occasionally, the crown may be invaginated. In compound odontomas, the teeth can be identified as compound odontomas because of the close proximity of multiple small tooth-like growths. In complex odontomas, tooth-like tissue grows around areas of disordered clusters. In Conical shape, the teeth look sharp at the top and wide at the bottom [2].

Categorization Based on Locations of Extra Teeth

Paramorals are extra teeth that grow next to one of the molars behind the mouth. Distomolars are extra teeth that grow in line with other molars, rather than around other molars. Mesiodens are extra teeth that grow around or behind the four flat teeth in front of the mouth (incisors) [3].

Causes of Hyperdontia

Excess teeth can develop due to environmental or genetic factors. The cause may be unknown. Extra teeth may be associated with hereditary disorders and syndromes. Gardner’s syndrome, a rare symptom, also causes benign growth in various areas and increases the risk of colon cancer. Cleidocranial dysplasia causes abnormal bone formation in the area of the skull and collar. Cleft lip and palate, these congenital irregularities occur when the baby’s lips and mouth are not properly formed in the womb [4]. Fabry disease is associated with a deficiency of the enzyme α-galactosidase A. It affects many areas such as teeth, skin, brain and nervous system. Ellis-van Creveld Syndrome is another rare condition that causes dwarfism with short limbs and extra fingers and toes. Congenital heart disease may also be included. In addition to tooth abnormalities, Nance-Horan Syndrome also causes congenital cataracts and causes visual impairment. Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome causes characteristic facial features, short stature, mental retardation, as well as problems with teeth, eyes, heart, and kidneys. Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome causes bone and joint malformations, unique facial features, and skin, hair, and tooth abnormalities. Other genetic syndromes can also cause extra teeth. For physicians, the presence of additional teeth can be an important clue to facilitate early diagnosis [5].

Diagnosis and Treatment

THyperdontia can be easily diagnosed if extra teeth are already growing. Even if they are not fully grown, they will appear in regular dental radiographs. Some cases of excess teeth do not require treatment, while others require the removal of excess teeth. Dentist will also likely recommend removing the extra teeth: if you have an underlying genetic condition causing the extra teeth to appear, if you cannot chew properly or cut your mouth when you chew, feel pain or experience discomfort due to overcrowding, cause problem in brushing or flossing that can lead to tooth decay and periodontal disease, and feel discomfort and anxiety about the appearance of the extra teeth. If extra teeth affect dental hygiene and other teeth, it is best to remove them as soon as possible. This will help avoid any lasting effects, such as gum disease or crooked teeth.

References