Received: 01-Jun-2022, Manuscript No. JCM-22-17372; Editor assigned: 03-Jun-2022, Pre QC No. JCM-22-17372(PQ); Reviewed: 24-Jun-2022, QC No. JCM-22-17372; Revised: 04-Jul-2022, Manuscript No. JCM-22-17372(R); Published: 13-Jul-2022, DOI: 10.35248/2157-2518.22.S32.004
Oral cancers can form on the tongue, the tissue lining the mouth and gums, under the tongue, at the base of the tongue, and in the rear of the mouth near the throat. Oral cancer accounts for about 3% of all cancers diagnosed each year. Oral cancer is more common in those over the age of 40, and men are affected more than twice as often as women. The majority of oral malignancies are caused by cigarette use, alcohol use (or both), or infection with the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV).
Head and neck malignancies include oral cancer. A biopsy of the affected area is used to make the diagnosis, which is then followed by an investigation with a CT scan, MRI, PET scan, and inspection.
Tobacco use is the leading cause of oral and pharyngeal cancer. It is a multi-organ carcinogen that, when combined with alcohol, causes malignancies of the mouth and throat by directly destroying cellular DNA. Tobacco is thought to increase the risk of mouth cancer by 3.4-6.8 times and is responsible for roughly 40% of all oral malignancies.
Because mouth cancer and its treatments might impair a patient's ability to conduct daily functions such as breathing and eating, developing a treatment plan for oral cancer often considers quality of life issues. In general, surgery is the first-line treatment for early-stage oral cancer. Chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and targeted therapy are common therapeutic choices. Oral cancer is usually treated with:
Patients with oral cancer may receive chemotherapy before or after surgery. When chemotherapy is administered before to surgery, the goal is frequently to shrink the cancer so that it can be removed more easily. Chemotherapy can help destroy any stray cancer cells that are left behind after surgery, lowering the risk of recurrence.
After surgery, radiation therapy is most commonly utilised to eradicate any cancer cells that may linger in the oral cavity. If doctors believe that radiation therapy can eradicate an oral cancer tumour while preserving chewing, swallowing, and speaking function, they may recommend it instead of surgery. Radiation therapy can also be used in conjunction with chemotherapy or targeted medications. This method is known as chemo radiation, and it is often used when there is a high danger of cancer cells remaining after surgery.
The epidermal growth factor receptor is one potential target in oral cancer. Many oral carcinoma cells have too many copies of EGFR, according to research. Because of the extra hormone, cancer cells grow quicker and become resistant to radiation and/or chemotherapy. Treatment of oral cancer with an EGFRtargeting medication may aid in the death of cancer cells while causing no harm to normal tissues.
Immunotherapy medications use your immune system's power to detect and eliminate cancer cells. They target specific proteins on the surface of cancer cells, either killing or inhibiting their growth. Some immunotherapy medications, such as the checkpoint inhibitors Keytruda and Opdivo, are being researched to see if they may be used to treat oral cancer. These medications may also be used in patients whose mouth cancer has returned or spread to other parts of the body after chemotherapy has failed.
Citation: Serife T (2022) Advanced Treatment Methods for Oral Cancer. J Carcinog Mutagen. S32:004.
Copyright: © 2022 Serife T. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.