Development of a Crime-Related Shame and Guilt Scale for Prisoners in the Philippine Context

Mariel Kristine T Rubia

The article chronicles the development of a specialized instrument which measures crime-related shame and guilt in the Philippine setting. The definition of shame and guilt were primarily based on the theory of Helen Block Lewis and validated locally through interviews with prison inmates and experts in the field of forensic psychology such as psychologists, lawyers and judges. Crime-Related Shame and Guilt Scale (CRSGS) is a test development project for prisoners conducted in five major phases. In Phase 1, content domain construction and item generation was done. Phase 2 involves forward and backward translation of the tool. In Phase 3, the preliminary form was administered to 393 respondents from the medium security division of the New Bilibid Prison and the Correctional Institution for Women in the Philippines. Item analysis was done to remove poor items. Coefficient alpha was used to establish the initial reliability. In Phase 4, final construct validation via internal structure and consistency was done by administering the final form to 723 inmate respondents to establish and strengthen its psychometric properties. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used in refining the scale. Revisions were made and the reliability of the test was also analyzed and computed. In Phase 5, the norms for each factor in the scale were standardized and established. The CRSGS was found to be psychometrically valid and reliable for measuring the level of shame and guilt in prisoners. It can be used by therapists, law enforcers, lawyers, judges, and prison institutions.