The chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation from the leaves parts of Scutia buxifolia were evaluated. The chemical composition was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Twenty-five substances were identified, consisting of a complex mixture of sesquiterpenes (73.69%) and monoterpenes (18.74%). The main components in the oil were spathulenol (27.09%), β-cubebene (11.26%), germacrene D (9.81%), carvacrol (7.01%), globulol (5.36%), α-copaene (4.17%), γ-eudesmol (3.59%), thymol (3.27%), 1,8-cineol (3.08%), p-cymene (2.56%), α-eudesmol (2.34%), β-elemene (2.04%), butylated hydroxytoluene (2.00%) along with eugenol acetate, n-hexanol, α-pinene, α-humulene, eugenol, humulene epoxide, phytol as minor constituents. The antioxidant property of the oil was assessed by free radical scavenging (DPPH) assay. S. buxifolia essential oil presented interesting radical scavenging activity (IC50=13.62 ± 0.17 μg/mL). The antibacterial properties of the oils also was tested by broth microdilution method and was effective only against S. aureus and E. coli (MIC=500 and 750 μg/mL, respectively). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of the composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oil from the S. buxifolia collected from Brazil.