20+ Million Readerbase
Indexed In
  • RefSeek
  • Hamdard University
  • Publons
  • Euro Pub
  • Google Scholar
  • Quality Open Access Market
Share This Page
Recommended Webinars & Conferences
Journal Flyer
Flyer image

Commentary - (2022) Volume 8, Issue 4

Physical Discomfort in Spinal Cord: Diagnosis, Prognosis and Imaging
Thomas Koes*
Department of General Practice, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands
*Correspondence: Thomas Koes, Department of General Practice, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands, Email:

Received: 24-Jun-2022, Manuscript No. JPMME-22-17554; Editor assigned: 28-Jun-2022, Pre QC No. JPMME-22-17554 (PQ); Reviewed: 12-Jul-2022, QC No. JPMME-22-17554; Revised: 19-Jul-2022, Manuscript No. JPMME-22-17554 (R); Published: 28-Jul-2022, DOI: 10.35248/2684-1320.22.8.178


Society is heavily burdened by low back discomfort. In their lifetimes, many people will endure episodes of low back discomfort. Low back discomfort can become chronic in some people, which can be quite incapacitating. Costs related to low back discomfort are considerable both directly and indirectly. Recent epidemiological statistics indicate that we should reevaluate our assumptions about how low back pain progresses. Low back pain fluctuates over time with frequent recurrences or exacerbations rather than being simply acute or chronic. Additionally, rather than being a localized, independent pain, low back pain may commonly be a component of a generalized pain issue.

Despite the fact that numerous individual, psychological, and occupational risk factors for the onset of low back pain have been discovered by epidemiological research, their independent predictive value is typically low. The probability of chronic impairment has also been linked to a number of factors, but no single factor appears to have a significant impact. As a result, the most efficient strategy for primary and secondary prevention is still unclear. In comparison to single-modal interventions, multimodal preventative approaches appear to be more able to reflect the clinical reality.

All developed countries experience a significant amount of low back pain, which is often treated in basic healthcare settings. It is typically described as discomfort, stiffness, or muscle tension that is localized above the inferior gluteal folds and below the costal border, with or without leg pain (sciatica). Pain and disability are the two main signs of non-specific low back pain. General practitioners, medical specialists, and other healthcare professionals have long been characterized by significant regional and international variance in the diagnosis and treatment of individuals with low back pain. Recent developments include a significant number of randomized clinical studies, systematic reviews, and the release of clinical guidelines. The future of evidence-based low back pain care has significantly improved.


The diagnosis of patients with specific or non-specific low back pain is the main focus of the diagnostic process. Symptoms of a specific pathophysiological mechanism, such as a hernia nuclei pulposi, infection, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, fracture, or tumor, are referred to as specific low back pain. According to a study conducted in the United States, of all primary care patients with back pain, 4% had compression fractures, 3% have spondylolisthesis, 0.7% has tumors or metastases, 0.3% has ankylosing spondylitis, and 0.1% has infections. Low back pain that lacks a clearly identifiable etiology is referred to as nonspecific low back pain. A diagnosis of non-specific low back pain, which is essentially based on excluding specific pathologies, will apply to about 90% of all patients with low back pain.

A wide range of diagnostic labels are used by many healthcare professionals. For instance, lumbago may be treated by general practitioners, hyperextension by physiotherapists, facet joint disorder by chiropractors or manual therapists, and degenerative disc disease by orthopedic surgeons. However, for the majority of cases of non-specific low back pain, there is currently no accurate and consistent classification method. Nonspecific low back pain is typically categorized by the length of the complaints in both clinical practice and the literature. Acute low back pain is characterized as lasting less than six weeks, subacute pain as lasting between three and six months, and chronic pain as lasting more than three months. In clinical practice, the triage process is centered on spotting "red flags" that could be signs of underlying pathology, such as issues with the nerve roots. The patient is classified as having non-specific low back pain if there are no warning signs.


The clinical course of an episode of acute low back pain generally tends to be favorable, and the majority of pain and concomitant disability will go away in a few weeks. The fact that 90% of patients with low back pain in primary care will have ceased seeing their doctor after three months is another example of this. According to Croft, many people have varying levels of low back discomfort over time. The majority of back pain sufferers will have had at least one prior episode, and acute bouts frequently worsen chronic low back pain. Recurrences are thus frequent. Few researchers determined that the cumulative chance of at least one recurrence within a year was 73% (95% confidence interval 59% to 88%). However, the intensity of these recurrences is typically lower, and a second visit to the general practitioner is not always necessary. Only 5% of patients who experience an acute episode of low back pain go on to experience chronic low back pain and associated impairment.


There does not appear to be a clear correlation between abnormalities in -ray and magnetic resonance imaging and the onset of non-specific low back pain. Imaging abnormalities in healthy individuals are just as common as those in patients with back pain. In individuals without low back pain, Van Tulder and Roland identified radiological abnormalities ranging from 40% to 50% for degeneration and spondylosis. When reporting the results of a radiological investigation, radiologists, according to them, should incorporate this epidemiological information. Many people with low back discomfort exhibit no abnormalities. Clinical recommendations now advise being selective when referring patients with non-specific low back pain for imaging. This is a result of these findings. Imaging would only be recommended in situations with red flag conditions. A small number of studies have demonstrated the accuracy of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging for the diagnosis of lumbar disc herniation and stenosis, two disorders that can be easily distinguished from non-specific low back pain by the presence of red flags. Although the occurrence of these particular illnesses is low, magnetic resonance imaging is probably more effective than other methods of imaging for identifying infections and malignancies.

Citation: Koes T (2022) Physical Discomfort in Spinal Cord: Diagnosis, Prognosis and Imaging. J Pain Manage Med. 8:178.

Copyright: © 2022 Koes T. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.