Research Article - (2016) Volume 5, Issue 1
Strategy of social and economic development of the region should include the development of state strategic plans for economic entities and their innovative development program, as it was the scenario of innovative development was adopted by the Ministry of Economic Development of the Russian Federation as a priority until 2020. However, in accordance with other regulations of the country’s economic entities have the right not to provide this information to the authorities and the regional administration. In this regard, the strategic planning of the Federation will be incomplete and a little predictable, not contributing the innovative development of the territory. After Russia’s transition to a market economy caused a serious deterioration of the national innovation system. Many links have appeared open, and, in general, an innovative system was in need of renovation in order to merge with the new economic system of the country. The current system of underfunding basic and to a large degree applied research from the government and organizations of various sectors of the economy actually severed the link between science and industry. Innovation in the enterprise is a painful process that aims to change the current organization of work, the usual methods of work, the position of employees. Therefore, the planned leadership change often encounter resistance. In order to reduce the resistance level personnel within the organization need to create a special adaptive culture that allows for change.
Keywords: Planning strategy; Strategy of social and economic development; Innovative development; State programs; Technological infrastructure; Consulting infrastructure; infrastructure training; information infrastructure; financial infrastructure; marketing infrastructure
Planning strategy; Strategy of social and economic development; Innovative development; State programs; Technological infrastructure; Consulting infrastructure; infrastructure training; information infrastructure; financial infrastructure; marketing infrastructure
In accordance with the Federal Law of June 28, 2014 № 172-FL “On the strategic planning in the Russian Federation” the regional law was approved on March 3, 2015 № 24-L “On strategic planning in the Nizhny Novgorod region , which confirmed the strategy of socioeconomic development of the territory.
Strategy of socio-economic development of the region includes:
1. Evaluation of goals achieved socio-economic development of the region.
2. Priorities, objectives, tasks and directions of socio-economic policy field.
3. Indicators of achievement of socio-economic development of the region, the timing and the stages of implementation of the strategy.
4. The expected results of the strategy.
5. Assessment of the financial resources needed to implement the strategy.
6. Information on government programs area approved for the implementation of the strategy.
7. Any other provision determined by the laws of the area.
This strategy would have to include the development of state strategic plans for economic entities and their innovative development program, as it was the scenario of innovative development was adopted by the Ministry of Economic Development of the Russian Federation as a priority until 2020. However, in accordance with other legal acts of the Russian Federation, the subjects of management have the right not to provide this information to the authorities and the regional administration. In this regard, the strategic planning of the Federation will be incomplete and a little predictable.
In addition, and in the federal and regional laws in the strategic planning is no clear organizational plan for the building of strategic planning:
• Based on the settings of the RF Government, which apply to the subjects of the Russian Federation and municipal entities
• Based on the specific strategic plans of municipalities, the subjects of the Russian Federation and the federal level.
Since the subjects of the Russian Federation and municipalities can independently develop strategic plans, their mutual compatibility will be difficult, and the adjustment of these plans will also be mismatched.
Nizhny Novgorod region to be developed on an innovative way. In the long term, innovative development of Nizhny Novgorod region must be accompanied by the development of high-tech industries based on new advanced technologies and knowledge . The competitive advantage of the region is the presence of deep technological traditions, the development of scientific and educational complex, able to ensure the development and introduction of modern technologies of world level in the existing and new enterprises in the region.
Based on an analysis of the current state of the innovation system of the Nizhny Novgorod region, the analysis of the challenges and threats of the main problems of innovative development is proposed for the implementation of the five priority areas on which will be the organization and management of innovative activity in the region:
1. Promote the recovery of innovative activity of industrial enterprises of the Nizhny Novgorod region.
Its purpose is: to promote innovation in the field of industrial enterprises across the spectrum of innovation activities - technological innovation, innovation in management, marketing, finance, and others.
Systemic use of innovations will improve the efficiency and competitiveness of industrial enterprises in the region, will help accelerate their growth, enter new markets, create new jobs. It ultimately determines economic development and improving the economic security of the region, the growth of the tax base and improving the quality of life.
To implement this direction is necessary to carry out a number of works:
Analysis of innovative activity of industrial enterprises in the region on the basis of monitoring carried out at intervals of one year.
1. Formation of clusters of innovative activity of industrial enterprises that operate in key technology sectors.
2. Formation of a package of the most promising innovative projects in each cluster.
3. Analysis of problems that lead to low innovation activity of industrial enterprises in the region.
4. Development of models and methods needed to improve the efficiency of management in innovative potential of industrial enterprises in the region.
The main objectives of the direction:
1. Implementation of the support of promising innovation projects in each cluster by (search for possible investors both domestically and abroad, of the state support measures at both the regional and federal levels).
2. Organization of the innovation audit procedures in the Nizhny Novgorod region, including (if necessary) the technological expertise of major innovative projects, evaluating their level of innovation and competitiveness in view of the change of generations of technology (IT).
3. Provide a permanent independent monitoring of innovation in the region.
4. Promote the process of technology transfer between industry and research institutions in the area.
The main expected results of the implementation of this area:
1. Leading the growth rate of industrial enterprises, increase the competitiveness of their products. The main consequence of this is to strengthen the economic security of the region.
2. Creation of an effective system of technology transfer, sustainable industrial relations with the scientific organizations of the region.
3. Establishment of a system of innovation management.
4. The acquisition and development of skills and experience in innovation management in industrial plants.
5. Encouraging the growth of small and medium-sized innovative companies in the area.
The goal areas:
To create conditions for growth and development of small and medium-sized innovative companies with a focus on competitive technological advantages through the use of scientific knowledge (technology-oriented).
The importance of this trend due to the fact that this is another opportunity to commercialization of scientific organizations, along with the implementation of research results in the industry.
To this direction need to carry out a number of works:
1. Analysis of small and medium-sized innovative companies on the basis of data obtained from monitoring this activity.
2. Analysis of the problems arising in the establishment and development of technology-oriented small and medium enterprises.
3. Interaction managers of industrial enterprises, scientific and educational organizations on the establishment on their basis of the centers of commercialization of innovation.
1. Implementation of the support of promising innovation projects implemented by small and medium-sized innovative companies operating in the technology sector.
2. Promote the technology transfer process.
3. Development of a list of measures to create a system that promotes the effective implementation of innovative products and services produced by small and medium-sized innovative firms.
The main expected results of the implementation:
1. The positive dynamics in the development of new technologyoriented enterprises.
2. Create a positive image of the Nizhny Novgorod region as one of the leading centers in Russia for the development of small and medium-sized innovative enterprises.
3. Involvement in the process of economic development of the region a growing number of innovative firms in the technology sector.
4. The growth of innovative products and services supplied to the domestic market and for export.
5. Creating an effective infrastructure to support innovation activity of industrial enterprises in the Nizhny Novgorod region.
The aim of the direction is the creation of an effectively functioning infrastructure conducive to the rapid development of innovative activity of industrial enterprises in the Nizhny Novgorod region.
The basis of a comprehensive infrastructure to support innovative activities should make the following interrelated systems:
• Information System
• The system of examination of programs and projects
• A system of financial and economic support
• The system of production and technological support
• Certification system
• A system to market high technology products
• The system of coordination and management of innovation
System-forming elements of the regional innovation infrastructure should be: public research centers, branch institutes, universities, major research and production enterprises, technology parks and business incubators. The elements of the system, responsible for the production of scientific and technological product and its promotion in the market to become engineering firms.
Preparatory work for the implementation of the directions:
1. Analysis of demand for innovative infrastructure subjects of innovation.
2. A comparison of the demand for services and a set of proposals that has the existing infrastructure to support innovation.
3. Determination of the missing links in the innovation infrastructure.
4. Addition network of innovative infrastructure missing links.
The main problems:
Develop a list of criteria for the annual evaluation of the efficiency of infrastructure to support innovation in the Nizhny Novgorod region.
1. Annual monitoring and analysis of the functioning of an infrastructure of support of innovative activity in the Nizhny Novgorod region.
2. Organization of activities provides a link with the subjects of innovation infrastructure support innovation activities (seminars, conferences, exhibitions, etc.).
3. Promote the development of external relations infrastructure support innovation.
The main expected outcomes of the trend are the emergence of an integrated and efficient system of support of innovative activity of industrial enterprises in the Nizhny Novgorod region.
Formation of the legal framework for the development of innovative activity of industrial enterprises in the Nizhny Novgorod region.
The aim of the direction – the creation of favorable institutional environment for innovative development of the Nizhny Novgorod region, the effective use of tax incentives, mechanisms for publicprivate partnerships and other tools of innovation management of industrial enterprises in the region.
Preparatory work for the implementation of the directions:
1. Analysis of international and Russian legislation, the experience of other regions in the state support of innovative activity of industrial enterprises.
2. Identification of the main obstacles to innovation development of Nizhny Novgorod region, the problems of the regional legislation on the management of innovative activity of industrial enterprises.
3. Formation of a package conditions that provide the most favorable environment for all participants in the innovation process.
The main problems:
• Provision of state support for priority to innovative projects the Nizhny Novgorod region.
• Formation of an attractive environment for investment in innovation activities of industrial enterprises.
• Establishment of legal mechanisms of information support of the innovation process.
The main expected outcomes of the direction:
1. Creation of a balanced system of interlinked legal instruments.
2. Formation of legal mechanisms to enhance the effectiveness of innovative development of industrial enterprises.
3. Creating a favorable investment climate for the growth of small and medium-sized innovative enterprises in the region.
4. Ensuring innovation in the Nizhny Novgorod region with qualified personnel and increasing the level of innovation culture.
The goal areas – staffing industry Preparatory work for the implementation of the directions:
1. Analysis of the training needs of various target groups.
2. The choice of educational institutions, training of trainers.
3. Preparation of vocational training programs.
1. Interaction with educational institutions of higher education by providing training for growing innovative enterprises, training in the field of innovation management and marketing with the assistance of the heads of working successfully innovative enterprises, including using the mechanisms of state support and targeted training.
2. Establishment of educational institutions of secondary vocational education state job training to innovative enterprises.
3. Organization on the basis of multi-functional centers of applied vocational training qualifications on the orders of business innovation sector.
4. Support for inventive activity involved in the creative process of students and young professionals.
1. Advanced training in companies, consulting organizations to international standards.
2. The growth of the innovation culture of the innovation process in the region.
To implement these five areas will use the following three basic mechanisms.
Monitoring of innovative activity of industrial enterprises and organizations of the region. With it will perform the following tasks:
• A systematic survey of the region in view of its innovative diagnostic development;
• Evaluation and analysis of the results of innovation activities of enterprises, correlating these results with certain criteria, identifying the causes of unsuccessful activities;
• Forecasting of innovation, identifying emerging trends in order to adjust the direction of innovation development;
• Preparation of recommendations aimed at overcoming the negative and support positive trends, bringing them to the respective governments and authorities;
• Formation of the list of innovative companies, industries, and individual innovation projects;
• Continuous improvement of procedures for assessing the innovation potential, the efficiency of technology transfer and commercialization of innovations;
• The creation and implementation of information support of innovative activity in the region.
Implementation of a monitoring mechanism to evaluate the state of the innovation system of the region. This information is the basis for effective management decisions.
Innovation audit of industrial enterprises of the Nizhny Novgorod region. With him will be:
To check the readiness of enterprises to conduct innovative activities
• Determination of barriers to innovation
• Identify technologies with the potential commercialization
• Positioning of innovative products, the definition of markets .
• Assessment of the innovative capacity of businesses
• Assessment of the effectiveness of internal and external innovation transfer; - Evaluation and monitoring of innovation enterprise
A comprehensive study of the state of defense, protection and use of intellectual property
• Check the validity of attributing the cost of the innovative nature of the event, whether to use a specific source of funding
• Evaluation of the reliability of the reporting on the implementation of innovative measures properly completed statistical forms;
• Identifying opportunities for innovation financing
• Analysis of specific innovation projects, including a business plan for the commercialization of innovations;
• Formation of innovative culture as ideology and technology innovation enterprise development
• Development of educational programs, manuals, guidelines and other materials for training in the field of innovation. The introduction of innovative audit at the industrial enterprises of the Nizhny Novgorod region will increase the efficiency of management of the regional innovation system.
Improving innovation legislation Nizhny Novgorod region. The implementation of the above directions will mean the transfer of the Nizhny Novgorod region on the path of innovative development.
The problem existing technological infrastructure is the virtual absence of rotation of small enterprises in industrial parks and technology centers, ie, small business, hitting the industrial park, remains there indefinitely. This is due to the lack of market in most regions of production space, and the small company has to hold on to the area of industrial park as long as possible. The consequence of this situation is that, on the one hand, after a while was terminated preproduction growth of small businesses located in the industrial park, and on the other - stops the growth of the number of small businesses. As a result, industrial parks, and innovation and technology centers in the set-GIH cases purely nominal objects are innovative infrastructure, but rather a profitable home owners to bring their income from renting space to small businesses. It is proposed to address this problem in establishing limits on the tenure of small enterprises as part of technology parks. However, without creating opportunities for posted of them, in other areas it is, in fact, would mean the closure of the small businesses across the stipulated time. Most likely the situation will quickly return to its initial state by a formal “rotation” through the establishment of new entities with a constant composition of the founders.
As a viable alternative for solving the problem can be considered marked the construction of industrial parks - a set of standardmodules equipped with the necessary infrastructure and production infrastructure, where a small business might have to start renting and the availability of financial capacity to buy back production Ploscha di. Another option for access to production areas - organization of industrial parks on the basis of vacant or idle plants, which are many in almost all regions. Such projects are already beginning to be implemented in a number of regions.
The next block of infrastructure businesses include consulting organizations. The importance of these structures for innovation is that innovation has many specific features which knowledge is acquired only with the practical experience. Establishment of small innovative enterprises “non-professional” managers leads to the fact that the survival of enterprises usually low. Therefore, access to the professional counseling is one of the ways to improve the efficiency of the use of funds allocated to innovative development.
If a closer look at the problem of training, it should be noted, the whole complex of problems in this area. Without admission of young workers employed technology may be partially lost. At present, most industrial-governmental enterprises (both large and small) does not have the specialists to-that may properly ensure the promotion of high-tech products pre-market enterprises. The total demand for such personnel is several tens of thousands of people. The problem can only be solved by organizing purposeful-Government work on the preparation of such staff with a planning horizon of 5-10 years (time for basic training of personnel and acquisition of practical skills). Currently, training in management and marketing of high-tech manufacturing are dozens of universities in the country, but the effectiveness of this work is small. Only a small number of release-nicknames go to work in the specialty; there are significant problems even manning a small number of technology transfer centers, created with the participation of the Russian science. Package them, usually occurs by experts who are selected on practical fitness to perform objectives and functions. Finally, it should be noted, and the shortage of qualified lecturers-lei for training. Many universities are teaching specialists who have no practical experience in those matters in which they teach student. Training is conducted on foreign developments and benefits are not reflected, of damaging the full Russian specifics and reality, resulting in the output is the specialists who then within a few years have to gain experience through trial and error.
In this regard, it should be noted once again the role of consulting. In since staff training - a process long enough, and inertia, and the onset of irreversible changes in many enterprises, oriented to production of high-tech products, may be less than the term of the staffing problem should provide for the establishment and development of SIS theme consulting for industrial enterprises Innovation and market promotion of high technology products. This system should work in close coordination and been ensured vides a one-time consulting on specific issues arising from the pre-acceptance.
The next block of an infrastructure of support of innovative activity related to access to information. In this area, there is a fairly extensive network of organizations, including regional topic Centre for Scientific and Technical Information, the structures that support small business, regional information network. The current system effectively solves a number of problems. For technical information is now available in large quantities in almost all areas of science and technology. It presents no particular problems of access to patent information.
The main information that can influence the decision-villas for innovative development and for which there is a significant deficit is related to market information. The solution to this problem should be the responsibility of the state power. Another group of questions providing innovative information-term activity associated with bringing about new developments to potential users of the organization of consultations on their ispolzova-NIJ. It is supposed to create a network of information-analytical centers of the priority directions of development of science and technology, as well as on innovational issues. It is also setting works on the analysis and systematization of information on completed research and development of the regions and the whole of Russia. Significant efforts will be allocated on completed research and development to interested consumers. Will be supported by work on market research and business plan development organization promising industries of high technology products.
In the next group of enterprises of innovation infrastructure is the most lively discussion - the structures that allow access of innovative enterprises (both large and small) to the financial self-resur. Currently, there are quite a few financial tooling, but the statistical studies show that the main source of financing-com development of innovative industrial enterprises are their own funds. Bank credit is still too expensive, and loans too short for the development of innovative figureof. It is important to articulate what can and should make the state does to provide fast and convenient financial flows in the innovationing sphere. There are three main points: First, this risk-sharing, in particular in the form of share-embedding of third-party tools or software financial from the federal and regional budgets. Obviously, the possibility-of which are provided by various Russian funds, should be used as such a separation. Recently, a number of regions are the guarantee structure and funds that have to solve the problem, we provide loans to small businesses in the banking system. Secondly, aspect is that different funds and different investors can finance the different stages of the scientific and technical pro-project. Investment projects that are currently offered in Russia is not yet ready for normal commercial, including venture-invested. Therefore, an important task of the state support - provide them with the necessary training. Third, resources, budgets (both federal and regional levels) are available mainly to large companies. But even for them the scale to ensure budgetary funds is not more than 5-10% of the required volumes. The development of the small innovative enterprises pre-financed mainly by the founders and their relatives and friends. The limitations of these sources lead to the inhibition of the growth of small innovative enterprises. Seed funding program, organized by the Foundation for Assistance to Small Innovative Enterprises of scientific and technical spheres and local programs to support small businesses are not able to reverse the negative trends and compensates, at best, a small part of small innovative enterprises. Summary of support of small innovative entrepreneurship of the local budget, saying that their influence on the dynamics of small innovative pre-acceptance is also small. Hopes pinned on venture investment. Creating a network of venture capital on the basis of effective partnership of small, large enterprises and financial institutions - is the main direction of the implementation of scientific and technical programs in our country. All policy documents at both the federal and the regional level will build-emphasizes the importance of and the development of venture capital funds.
However, some researchers say the lack of effect on the date of creation of similar funds. Venture capital investment, which in recent years is a lot of discussion, it is still exotic, and significant progress in this area yet. Developed countries, where business venture to serve the needs of large enterprises in promising developments, the majority of Russian enterprises Preference-melt to make such development on their own. We have in most enterprises there is a significant amount of their own development, and first of all enterprises seek to load them, and not the organization. That is creating ventures - is the work of foreign markets with all the ensuing slozhnostyami21. Another important factor is existing in our on-currently the complexity of the “exit” from the investor created the venture - it also contributes to the development of venture business. Creation of venture funds is precisely within a regional framework. However, in most such cases, the word “venture” in the name reflects only a fashionable trend. In fact, most of these structures are rows background support innovation aimed at financing of R & D, and does not involve the creation of new enterprises. A major contribution to the solution of the problem of funding would be the involvement in innovative business money large industrial pre-acceptance. Most of the industrial enterprises are not interested in paying (or is unable to pay) R & D. Another way to attract money in the market innovative enterprises - is accelerating the innovation cycle in terms of scaling the output of the enterprise market with finished products.
One of the key factors in the competitiveness of the modern enterprise is a developed distribution system. Due to objective reasons, related to the history of development of Russian companies, most of them do not have human resources and skills in the marketing of high technology products. Bottom-kai demand for high-tech products from the Russian industrial-represented companies, which are often referred to as one of the causes of ALS, the God of the innovation sector of the economy, due, on the one-hand, low paying companies, on the other hand - the lack of information about the offers developers the opportunity, ie active work on promotion of innovative products on the market by its manufacturer. Even more relevant is this problem in entering the world markets.
In this regard, the establishment of an effective system of promoting high-tech products of Russian companies on the domestic and international markets is a very urgent task, which determines the success of the program translation industry to the innovative scenario.
After Russia’s transition to a market economy caused a serious deterioration of the national innovation system. Many links have appeared open, and, in general, an innovative system was in need of renovation in order to merge with the new economic system of the country. The current system of underfunding basic and to a large degree applied research from the government and organizations of various sectors of the economy actually severed the link between science and industry. Both of these sectors of the economy function actually offline. One way to overcome this gap - the creation of functionally complete innovation environment of distinct motivation for incubation in the first place for innovation in the missing elements of the institutional and self-development.
There is a balance between the development of existing and development of new products is important, but it is extremely difficult for any firm. Innovation activity by virtue of its properties should be organized separately from the main production processes. It should have its own budget, a special control. In some companies, researchers and easily move from project to project, allowing expansion or contraction of the scale of operations.
One of the basic principles of the organizational innovation is the creation of an autonomous group or team that has to operate outside the structure of the existing management current production. Similarly, out of a total production budget must be allocated fi Nancy intended for innovation. This is due to the fact that the funds for the development of new products are the cost, the impact of which will be available only in the future. Ultimately, such a delay could lead to loss of concompetitiveness of the enterprise. When creating innovation should focus not on the product and the market, ie, specific needs. Focusing on product-characterized thorns for the activity of many researchers and developers. Ideas about new products, based on the experiences of their work and the logic of the development of research. Improvement of the product or creating a new basis of its own ambitions of developers, is orientation to the market, leading to project failure. Report this orientation in the development of innovations in the short-term gains, which is reflected in risk aversion and uncertainty. Prediction innovation - a complex, contradictory, connected with a variety of ricekami process.
Difficulties encountered relate to the following factors
• Changes in demand for new products. When you create a new product organization is certain R & D costs, and the less will be the demand for products, the more expensive it will be for buyers due to high costs for research and development
• Changes in prices for these products and, consequently, profits can occur under the influence of a sharp increase in the requirements for economic and environmental security, changes in prices for raw materials; c) the amount of its own costs. The inability to complete a proper accounting costs for innovative products due to factors such as unexpected costs for additional investigation, the price increase on the part of suppliers of components, the increase of wages, rent payments tariff. Therefore, the company needs to introduce some correction factor; d) in the current account of the conditions of the actions of competitors depends on the blur-ditch-tech enterprise and the degree of its products. The more pre-acceptance, the less his market rivals. Innovation in the enterprise is a painful process that aims to change the current organization of work, the usual methods of work, the position of employees. Therefore, the planned leadership change often encounter resistance. In order to reduce the resistance level personnel within the organization need to create a special adaptive culture that allows for change.
Each organization has its own culture, which is formed on the protension all its development and defines the operation of the enterprise. In order to achieve unity of action of the staff, innovative goals needed. Modern approaches to the formation of common interests, attitudes, fixed that can be done by controlling the organizational culture. The leading role in the system of innovation management should play top leaders. Implementation of changes in the culture of the organization is accompanied by definition, dividing the difficulties. The degree of resistance to change, proportional to their contents. Innovative changes, ultimately, should be enshrined in the relevant skills specialists’ organization. Particular importance is adequate changes in the so-called core competence of the enterprise. With these changes are directly related to increasing competitiveness and strengthening the innovative capacity of competitive advantage. Another aspect of the innovation of modern enterprises - financing projects and economic feasibility of innovations. The objective of the innovation policy of the company is the development of concretetion, cost-effective projects. Before a break-processing enterprise innovation policy is necessary to analyze the following factors: market conditions, including the financial market as a whole and its parts; the place of the enterprise market, the volume of sales of goods (works, services), quality, price, the actions of competitors; economic situation of the company, its financial condition
The combination of own and other resources of the enterprise (borrowed funds, borrowing, leased assets, property is obtained according to the leasing agreement, the benefits received from the State, the conditions of insurance and obtain guarantees against noncommercial risks).The sources of financing of innovative activity can be profit-making enterprises, financial and industrial groups, small business only Innovation, investment and innovation funds, local governments, private individuals, etc. All of them participate in the economic process, and in some way contribute to the development of innovation. In developed countries, the financing of innovation, and one to implement both from public and private sources. For most countries in Western Europe and the United States is characterized by an approximately equal distribution of financial resources to research and development between the public and private capital-scrap. Principles of financing should be focused on the multiplicity of sources of funding, which involves the rapid and effective implementation of innovation and commercialization, providing high financial returns from innovation.