Research Article - (2013) Volume 4, Issue 3

Ampicillin-sulbactam Effect in Respiratory Infections in Thoroughbred Horses: A Preliminar Study

Morales A1,2*, Alves Nascimento C3, Nursikian A3, Rojas E3 and Villoria D2
1Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Central University of Venezuela, Venezuela
2Animal Health Division Racetrack, “La Rinconada” Caracas, Venezuela
3College of Pharmacy, University of Santa María, Caracas, Venezuela
*Corresponding Author: Morales A, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Central University of Venezuela, Venezuela Email:

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ampicillin-sulbactam in respiratory processes of Thoroughbred horses. We studied a total of 21 horses, (11 stallions and 10 mares) of Thoroughbred, all 2 years old, during the period of quarantine at the Hippodrome “La Rinconada” Caracas, Venezuela. History shows respiratory processes, characterized by purulent nasal secretion, cough, purulent nasal secretion, depression and anorexia. All horses under the same conditions of feeding and management. It was practiced a cytological, bacterial culture swab following conventional methods, from nasal swab. Then we preceded to antibiotic therapy based Calox Ampicillin-sulbactam, 7 mg/kg dose, and injection form every 12 hours and for 5 days. Gradually, each horse was evaluated during the 7 days by clinical and bacteriological examination final. The established antibiotic Ampicillin-sulbactam base for 7 days led to a clear positive clinical response and complete resolution in all cases studied from the seventh day. In relation to the isolated bacteria corresponded to 90% Streptococcus equi, while 5% Staphylococus aureus corresponded to and 5% to Klebsiella sp. The resistance was observed for Nilidixic Acid, Ciprofloxacin and Penicillin. In conclusion, we demonstrated the effectiveness of Ampicillin-sulbactam in treating respiratory infections in Thoroughbred Horses.

Keywords: Equine; Ampicilina-sulbactam; Antibiotic

Introduction

Respiratory processes are relatively common in horse’s athletes, as well as every day increases the number of reports of antimicrobial resistance. Particularly in the Racetrack “La Rinconada” Caracas- Venezuela, there are previous reports of antimicrobial resistance. The bacterial isolates in the Racetrack “La Rinconada” Caracas-Venezuela showed resistance to gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, trimethoprim, ampicillin and amikacin [1]. Efficacy of sulbactam, a beta-lactamase inhibitor, in combination with ampicillin, has been evaluated for treatment of experimentally induced pneumonia caused by beta-lactam-resistant Klebsiella pneumonia [2]. The combination of sulbactam plus ampicillin was found to have synergistic effects in vivo, to reduce the extent and severity of experimentally induced Gram-negative lung infection in foals [2]. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ampicillin-sulbactam in respiratory processes of Thoroughbred horses.

Materials and Methods

We studied a total of 21 horses (Equus caballus), (11 stallions and 10 mares) Thoroughbred, all 2 years old, during the period of quarantine at the Hippodrome “La Rinconada” Caracas-Venezuela. History shows respiratory processes, characterized by purulent nasal secretion, cough, purulent nasal secretion, depression and anorexia. All horses under the same conditions of feeding and management. It was practiced a cytological [3], bacterial culture swab following conventional methods, from nasal swab [4,5]. Then, we preceded to antibiotic therapy based Calox Ampicillin-sulbactam, 7 mg/kg dose, and injection form every 12 hours and for 5 days [6]. Gradually, each horse was evaluated during the 7 days by clinical and bacteriological examination final.

Results

In general, the results were 21 isolates: Streptococcus equi 19/21, Staphylococus aureus 1/21 and Klebsiella sp. 1/21. Susceptibility: Cefalosporin: 90.47%, Penicillin: 66.6% Resistance: Nilidixic Acid 94.47%, Ciprofloxacin 85.71% and Penicillin 23.80%.

The clinical results are presented in the following Table 1.

Parameter clinics Results
   Temperature 37.8°-39.8° ± 38.6°
Frequency Respiratory 18-40 rpm ± 28
Frecuency Cardiac 35 lpm-64 lpm ± 52
Nasal secretion 18/21 cases
Cytology Grade I Gram (+) (14/21) Grade II Gram (+) (7/21)
Cough 21/21
Leukogram Pre-treatment 15-14.6 mm3
Leukogram Post-treatment 8-12 mm3
Bacteria isolated Pre-treatment Streptococcus equi 19/21 Staphylococus aureus 1/21 Klebsiella sp. 1/21 Post-treatment Negative: 100%
Antibiogram Susceptibility: Cefalosporin: 90.47% Penicillin: 66.6% Resistance Nilidixic acid  94.47% Ciprofloxacin 85.71% Penicillin 23.80%

Table 1: Results of the clinical evaluation, cytology, microbial and sensitivity.

Discussion

The established antibiotic Ampicillin-sulbactam base for 7 days led to a clear positive clinical response and complete resolution in all cases studied from the seventh day. In relation to the isolated bacteria corresponded to 90% Streptococcus equi, while 5% Staphylococus aureus corresponded to, and 5% to Klebsiella sp. The resistance was observed for Nilidixic Acid, Ciprofloxacin and Penicillin. The emergence of resistance to various antibiotics is of considerable medical and correlates, with their use and sometimes uncontrollably in the treatment of infectious diseases [1,7-9]. In this situation raises new therapeutic molecules in the pharmaceutical industry with more power in less time and fewer adverse effects. In conclusion, we demonstrated the effectiveness of Ampicillin-sulbactam in respiratory infections in Thoroughbred Horses at 7 days post-treatment.

Acknowledgements

A Calox Veterinary Laboratories CA, to UNICRIA and Animal Health Division Racetrack “La Rinconada” Caracas-Venezuela.

References

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Citation: Morales A, Nascimento CA, Nursikian A, Rojas E, Villoria D (2013) Ampicillin-sulbactam Effect in Respiratory Infections in Thoroughbred Horses: A Preliminar Study. J Bacteriol Parasitol 4:171.

Copyright: © 2013 Morales A, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.