Survey on Coverage and Factors Influencing Delays in BCG Immunization in Hayin Mallam Zango, Zaria, North Western Nigeria

Sunday Asuke, Ibrahim J, Ibrahim MS and Asuke UA

BCG immunization at birth is an evidence-based intervention for the reduction of tuberculosis transmission. While performance of BCG immunization is commonly measured by coverage, ensuring that every child is immunized immediately after birth is an important public health goal. This study was aimed at assessing the coverage and factors influencing BCG immunization delays in Hayin Mallam, Zango Zaria, Kaduna Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 210 mothers of under-fives who were enrolled into the survey. A pre-tested semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from these mothers. Data was analyzed using IBM SPSS 20. Majorities (76.7%) of the children were immunized with BCG, but only 44.7% of them received the vaccine in the first 7 days of life. Majority of the mothers (42.9%) had post-secondary education; this did not translate to being aware of the correct timing of BCG vaccination. The major determinants of delay in a child receiving BCG were mothers’ educational status, whether she attended ANC and whether she delivered in a health facility. Even though most of the under-fives were immunized with BCG, a significant number received it later than the recommended time. Efforts to improve female education must be intensified, and antenatal care attendance and hospital delivery improved so that these could serve as avenues for educating mothers on the usefulness of immunization, particularly if done according to schedule.