Review On: Sheep and Goat Pox Disease; Current Updates on Epidemiological, Diagnosis, Prevention, and Control Measures in Ethiopia

Girma Zewdie*, Getaw Derese, Hassen Belay, Belayneh Getachew and Mirtneh Akalu

The livestock sector plays a vital role in economy of many developing countries like Ethiopia. The country has the largest livestock population in Africa. Among this sector, Small ruminants are important components of the livestock subsector and are sources of cash income, meat, milk and wool for smallholder keepers and foreign currency. Due to different constraints, however, small ruminant production in Ethiopia did not deliver the expected benefit to the national economy. Infectious diseases such as Sheep pox (SPP) and Goatpox (GTP) are some of the main challenges faced by this sector. SPP and GTP are highly infectious disease of sheep and goats caused by a virus belonging to the Capripoxvirus genus of the family Poxviridae. SPP and GTP are currently endemic in African, Middle Eastern and Asian countries. These diseases pose challenges to food production, distribution, and kill and impair animals, affect rural livelihood in most African countries including Ethiopia. Transmission of SPPV and GTPV occurs by direct and indirect contact to aerosols, respiratory droplets or contact with secretions of acutely infected animals. SPP and GTP virus cause systemic disease in sheep and goats that is often associated with high morbidity and high mortality. Diagnosis is mainly based on clinical signs, electron microscopy, and isolation of the virus, identification of the agent using real-time PCR methods, serological tests and Histopathological lesions. Even though there is reports of insufficient protection of the Kenyan sheep and goat pox virus (KSGPV) vaccine strains against LSDV, live attenuated vaccine derived from KSGP strains available in Ethiopia is safe and effective for the control of SPPV and GTPV throughout the country if and only if all vaccines are stored and handled correctly and consistent vaccination strategies has been implemented.

Published Date: 2021-10-22;