Mouhamadou Ndiaye*, Mame Cheikh Seck, Abdoulaye Diop, Khadim Diongue, Mamadou Alpha Diallo, Aida Sadikh Badiane and Daouda Ndiaye
Background: In Senegal, intestinal parasites are common due to poverty, poor personal hygiene, poor environmental sanitation, overcrowding, a lack of safe drinking water, and a lack of knowledge. To identify the parasites responsible for intestinal parasitic infections diagnosed at Le Dantec University Hospital of Dakar, distribution of parasites detected in stool samples of patients was studied from 2011 to 2020.
Methodology: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive, retrospective study of 3515 samples from patients aged four months to 91 years. A direct examination and Ritchie technique were performed as parasite search techniques. The effect of intestinal parasitic infections was assessed using a multivariate logistic regression with adjustment on covariates such as study period, age, sex, season and service. From the final model, adjusted odds ratios were derived with their 95% CI.
Results: Of these 751 parasites, 661(18.81%), were identified in monoparasitism by decreasing order: Entamoeba coli, 6.43% (226/3515), Blastocystis hominis (5.60%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (2.22%), Giardia intestinalis (1.22%), Ascaris lumbricoïdes (1.05%), Trichuris trichiura (0.68%), Trichomonas intestinalis (0.51%), Taenia saginata/ solium (0.37%), Cystoisospora. belli, Dicroecelium dendriticum, Endolimax nana, Schistosoma mansoni and Strongyloïdes stercolaris respectively (0.11%), Hymenolepis nana (0.08 %), Ancylostoma spp (0.06%), Cryptosporidium spp and Enterobius vermicularis respectively (0.03%). In biparasitism (2.48%), 174 parasites (87 associations) were identified. The most common associations were dominated by B. hominis-E. coli with 26 cases, E. coli-E. histolytica/dispar with 16 cases, A. lumbricoides-T. trichiura 10 cases, E. coli-G. intestinalis 9 cases, B. hominis/E. histolytica/dispar 7 cases, A. lumbricoïdes- E. coli 6 cases. Three triparasitism cases (0.09%) were observed with E. histolytica/dispar/ Ascaris lumbricoïdes/Trichuris trichiura, E. histolytica/dispar-Blastocystis hominis-Entamoeba coli, E. histolytica/dispar-Blastocystis hominis-Chilomastix mesnili. Multivariate analysis using a logistic regression model showed intestinal parasitic infections was significantly frequent in years 2013 (OR 0.48CI 95% (0.33-0.69)) and 2020 (OR 0.51 CI 95% (0.34-0.78)). Intestinal parasite infections were significantly associated with all age range (p=0.0001). There is no statistically significant association between isolated intestinal parasite such as gender, season and service. There was statistically significant association between age ranges and Giardia intestinalis, Blastocysts hominis (p<0.05).
Conclusions: This prevalence of intestinal parasite might be due to differences in hygiene practices, water supplies, latrine coverage, economic and educational status, and climatic conditions. Multiple intervention strategies could reduce the morbidity of acute diarrhea in populations such as health education, access to a safe water supply and improvement in hygiene.
Published Date: 2022-11-16; Received Date: 2022-10-16