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Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Salmonella serovars and Shigella species

Getachew Mengistu, Gebru Mulugeta, Tsehaynesh Lema and Abraham Aseffa

Background: Salmonellosis and shigellosis are global human health problems, especially in developing countries such as Ethiopia, where substandard hygiene and unsafe water supplies prevail which is aggravated by multidrug resistance. We determined the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Salmonella and Shigella isolates among diarrheic patients. Which helps in disease management by showing the disease burden and allowing for selection of appropriate antibiotics for empiric treatment in rural communities of resource limited countries such as Ethiopia. Result: Forty (10.5%) Salmonella and 17 (4.5%) Shigella strains were isolated from 382 patients. The Salmonella strains isolated were 6 (15%) group A (Somatic antigen O, O:2), 5 (12.5%) each of group B (O:4), D1 (O:9) and D2 (O:9,46) and 3 (7.5%) group C (O:7/O8) isolates while 16 (40%) could not be typed with the available antisera. Among 17 Shigella species Shigella sonnei founded as 6 (35.3%) followed by Shigella flexneri 5 (29.5%), Shigella dysenteriae 3 (17.6%) and Shigella boydii 3 (17.6%). High frequency of resistance for both Shigella and Salmonella isolates was observed to tetracycline (82.4%, 52.5%), co-trimoxazole (76.5%, 37.5%) and ampicillin (47.1%, 60%), respectively. All isolates were sensitive to ceftriaxone except 6 intermediate level Salmonella isolates. Fifty three percent of Shigella isolates were Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) (≥ 3 drugs) as compared to 27.5% of Salmonella isolates. Conclusion: Salmonella and Shigella species cause a significant amount of morbidity in rural communities. It is essential for rural hospitals to establish antimicrobial resistance monitoring policies and enforce them to prevent exacerbation of resistance.