Himani Chaturvedi, Vinod Singh and Govind Gupta
Endophytes colonize plants without causing any negative effects on them. They share a symbiotic relationship with their host and exert beneficial effects on them. They use various direct and indirect mechanisms to promote plant growth. A number of culture dependent and independent methods have been used to isolate and study endophytic bacteria. The endophyte communities isolated mainly belong to Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Bacteria utilize certain traits to colonize plants. In this colonization process various compounds released by both plants as well as bacteria play a major role. The plant growth promoting effects of bacterial endophytes have been seen in numerous important crops and it has been observed that they confer protection from various environmental stress factors as well.