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Phenotype Prevalence of Blood Group Systems (ABO, Rh, Kell) in Voluntary, Healthy Donors-Experience of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Delhi, North India

Neeraj Garg, Deepak Kumar Singh, Reena Tomar and Bharat Singh

Objective: To study phenotypic prevalence of ABO, Rh and Kell blood group system.
Material and Method: Voluntary blood donors were tested for red cell antigen of ABO, Rh (D, C, c, E, e) and Kell (K) blood group systems. Each sample was tested using LISS/Coombs ABO-Rh gel card and DiaClon Rh subgroups +K gel card. Calculations of antigen and phenotypes frequencies were expressed as percentages and allele frequencies were expressed under the standard assumption of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.
Results: Study included a total of 2769 voluntary blood donors in which blood group distribution was (A-22.3%, B-39.2%, AB-8.9%, O-29.6%). Rh antigen was found positive in 93.8% and negative in 6.2% donors. Amongst Rh positive antigens, e was the most common (98.7%) followed by C (91.8%), c (55.2%) and E(21.1%). DCe/DCe (44.7%) was the most common phenotype. Distributions of Rh minor antigens were also assessed in different blood group and were found similar. For the Kell System, only 1.6% was K positive which is less than previous study from India.
Conclusion: The prevalence of red cell antigen and phenotype frequencies differs in different populations. The knowledge of the prevalence of blood group antigens will be helpful in rational use of blood and blood products. It will also prevent alloantibodies formation in multiple transfused patients against minor antigens. Gel-card test is a rapid, simple and practical method for population studies.