Human Enteric Vaccines

Shanta Dutta, Priyanka Jain and Sujit K Bhattacharya

Worldwide, enteric infections are the second commonest cause of disease burden due to all infectious diseases. It is estimated that they are responsible for 1.3 million deaths per year, mostly in children below 5 years of age in the developing world. Enteric infections are caused by a gamut of bacterial, viral and parasitic agents. These include viruses (rotaviruses, enteric adenoviruses, astroviruses, human caliciviruses), bacterial agents (Vibrio cholerae, Shigella spp., enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. including Salmonella Typhi) and parasites. While suitable effective licensed vaccines are available against some of the enteric infections, many such diseases do not have a vaccine against them. Understanding the current scenario of vaccine development against these diseases is of paramount importance. This article reviews the current scenario in vaccine research and development against some of the common human viral and bacterial enteric pathogens of public health importance. Vaccines against parasitic diseases are not discussed.