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Growth Inhibition Potentials of Leaf Extracts from Four Selected Euphorbiaceae against Fruit Rot Fungi of African Star Apple (Chrysophyllum albidum G. Don)

Ilondu EM and Bosah BO

The efficacy of ethanolic leaf extracts from Phyllanthus amarus, Euphorbia hirta, Euphorbia heterophylla and Acalypha fimbriata in inhibiting the growth of post-harvest fruit rot fungi of Chrysophyllum albidum was investigated at the concentrations of 100, 80, 60 40 and 20 mg/ml in-vitro. The fungi isolated from rotted fruits and their frequency of occurrence includes Aspergillus niger (69.6%) and Fusarium solani (30.4%). These fungal isolates were cultured on different leaf extracts agar and their radial mycelia growth was observed. The antifungal activities increased with increase in concentrations of the plant extracts with E. heterophylla extract most effective in inhibiting the growth of A. niger while A. fimbriata extract was more effective in the inhibition of F. solani than other extracts. Phytochemical screening of the plant extracts revealed the presence of saponins, alkaloids, glycosides, terpenes, steroids, flavonoids, tannins and phenols. Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed the presence a complex mixture of constituents ranging from 7 compounds in E. hirta, 10 compounds in A. fimbriata, 11 compounds in E. heterophylla and 14 compounds in P. amarus. The result of this study is an indication that these Euphorbiaceae could be a potential source of antifungal agents.