Genetic Counseling and Genetic Tests Ethical Challenges

Bereshneh AH, Nejad AS and Akrami SM

Practice standards in medical genetics provide an implied guide to the ethical, legal, and social implications of genetic tests. The public use of nondirective counseling reflects the principle that many testing choices should be determined by personal values.
Rising knowledge about the genetics of disease is generating remarkable ethical dilemmas for genetic services. The clinical purposes for genetic testing are increasing as well. Along with diagnosing disease, some genetic tests can identify inherited susceptibility to future disease, making it possible to modify anticipation and prevention strategies individually. Genetic profiling may also ultimately provide a means to optimize drug treatments.
In this review will discuss about genetic counseling, Types of genetic testing and also the importance of genetic services in the health policies. In addition, talk about Ethics Science in Biomedicine and criteria which concern with Autonomy Informed, Decision Informed and Consent confidentiality of results in Genetic services. In continue; focus on Screening, Genetics Tests and Social Rights; Genetics Tests and insurance companies; Genetic Tests and Involvement of other family members; Ethical challenges in Postnatal diagnosis, Prenatal diagnosis, Genetic counseling and consanguineous marriage.
Ultimately, the medical genetics community plays a key role in the management of ethical challenges of genetic services, however multidisciplinary approach is needed. Cultural, social, economical conditions and religion must be addressed in solving this dilemmas.