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Bacillus subtilis A Potential Probiotic Bacterium to Formulate Functional Feeds for Aquaculture

Jorge Olmos and J Paniagua-Michel

In shrimp/fish aquaculture, feed represents the most expensive production cost. The quantity and quality of diets are primary factors influencing shrimp/fish growth, health status, disease prevention, pound contamination and expenses. Utilization of probiotic bacteria has emerged as a solution with enormous applications in the aquaculture feeding industry. Bacillus species principally B. subtilis are one of the most investigated bacteria for animal probiotic development due to: a) versatility of growth nutrients utilization, b) high level of enzymes production, c) secretion of antimicrobial compounds, d) spore producers, e) develops in aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and f) B. subtilis is Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Functional feeds development with alternative-economic nutrient vegetable sources of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and Bacillus subtilis probiotic strains, must be considered in shrimp/fish aquaculture production systems; as an option to eliminate animal feed ingredients, improves digestion-assimilation, reduce water pollution and diseases, and to increase yields and profits.