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Diaphragm Muscle Contraction Decrease in a Mouse Model of Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Airway Inflammation

Kazunobu Yamaguchi, Chiyohiko Shindoh and Masahito Miura

Objective: We investigated diaphragm contractile and inflammatory properties of mice with OVA sensitization and challenge.

Methods: BALB/c mice were sensitized to OVA by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection at 0 and 7 days, and challenged with aerosolized OVA on 21, 22, and 23 days (O/O group). Budesonide/Formoterol combination was inhaled on days 21, 22, and 23 before OVA challenge on those same days (O/OC group). Control mice were sensitized and challenged with an aerosolized saline (O-group). The diaphragm contractile and inflammatory properties were measured on day 24. NOS activity in the diaphragm muscle was evaluated by NADPH diaphorase staining. IL-4 and IL-13 levels of BALF, as well as lung tissue and diaphragm muscle homogenates were measured by ELISA.

Results: Force-frequency (F/f) curves of O/O and O/OC shifted downward in comparison with O- (p<0.05). NADPH diaphorase staining results of O/O and O/OC showed a significantly higher density compared with O-. The IL-4 level of diaphragm muscle homogenates increased significantly in the O/O compared with the O- and O/OC.

Conclusions: OVA sensitization and challenge decreased diaphragm muscle contraction, increased NOS activity, IL-4 levels of diaphragm in a mouse model. Budesonide/Formoterol combination could protect diaphragm muscle weakness and inflammation. According to the traditional concept of the contemporary Immunology, neither autoimmune diseases nor allergic diseases can be cured completely. Nevertheless, a fortunate coincidence led me to discovery of a novel concept that eliminations of the causes of these diseases are possible. In other words, combinations of pathogenic antibodies with responsible cells, namely, cytolytic T lymphocytes in cases of autoimmune diseases and mast cells in cases of allergic diseases, can be decomposed by replacing the pathogenic antibodies with non-specific antibodies. In more detail, intradermal injections with a non-specific antigen preparation induce production of non-specific antibodies in the body of the patient. Repetitions of the injections bring about an accumulation of them. Accumulated non-specific antibodies will occupy most of the receptors on the surface of responsible cells. When the accumulation reaches the sufficient level, virtually no pathogenic antibodies would remain on the receptors. That is, no causes of the diseases remain. Naturally, where there is no cause, there is no disease. Details are demonstrated elsewhere.