Congestive Cardiac Failure in Children: An Update on Patho-physiology and Management

Rashmi Ranjan Das, Shasanka Shekhar Panda, Meely Panda and Sushree Samiksha Naik

In contrast to adult heart failures, the pediatric heart failure is diverse if both the etiologies and management point of view are considered. If a child gets hospitalized for heart failure, the costs are more compared to adults because of the frequent need for catheter-based interventions or surgery. The medical care can adversely affect the family structure and function due to affection of the parental economic productivity. Besides this, the morbidity also considerably increases because of an increasing survival secondary to the successful application of medical and surgical therapies. That’s why clinicians need an up-to-date knowledge about the pediatric heart failure. The present review describes all the aspects of pediatric heart failure including the recent understandings comprehensively.