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Antimicrobial, Antiviral Activity and GC-MS Analysis of Essential Oil Extracted from Achillea fragrantissima Plant Growing In Sinai Peninsula, Egypt

Gamil S G Zeedan, Abeer M. Abdalhamed, Mahmoud E. Ottai, Sobhy-Abdelshafy and Eman Abdeen

Medicinal plants are considered new resources for producing agents that could act as alternatives to antibiotics in treatment of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of essential oil extracted from Achillea fragrantissima plant growing in Egypt for antimicrobial, antiviral activities and chemical composition analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). We also performed determination of essential oil antimicrobial activity by agar desk diffusion method and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). Also, antiviral activity on ORF virus by pock reduction test was performed. It was reduced virus titer from 5.9 to 1.00 at 180 minutes. Detection of beta lactams resistant bacteria (Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSA) and Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli) by PCR with primers of mecA gene and Bela gene. The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation was analyzed by GC-MS. The major components were found to be Santolina triene (1.97%), 2,5,5-trimethyl-3,6-heptadien-2-ol (8.23%) Eucalyptol 8.17, trans-2,7-Dimethyl- 4,6octadien-2-ol (24.40%), 1,5-Heptadien-4-one-3,6-trimethyl (7.65%), Artemisia alcohol (3.49%), à Thujone (33.97%), Cissabinol (1.92%), Lavandulol (0.71%), 2-Octen-4-ol, 2-methyl (2.02%), 3-Cyclohexen1ol,4-methyl1 (1 methylethyl) (CAS) (2.15%), à terpineol ( 0.05% ), Estragole (0.71%) Lavandulyl acetate (0.49%), Sabinyl acetate (2.12 %), Germacrened (0.94%). Finally, our study proved that the essential oil has bactericidal effect on some bacterial resistant antibiotic (Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSA) and Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli ) as well as antiviral activity on ORF virus but it is still need further extensive studies for safety and drug interaction.