An Overview on Diabetic Foot Ulcer (DFU): Mini Review

Sindhu S

Diabetes is a major disease which is widespread throughout the world. It is a condition in which the glucose level in the blood increases. The increase in blood glucose level is due to insufficient secretion of insulin in body. Insulin is a protein secreted by pancreas into the body, it makes use of sugar from carbohydrates in the food and store glucose for future. There are three types of diabetes, type 1 and type 2 and gestational diabetes. In type 1 diabetes insulin is not produced, in type 2 diabetes insulin is produced by not effectively used and gestational diabetes occurs during pregnancy, the hormones block the insulin. The cause of diabetes is not known exactly till now, it may be due to some factors like obesity, lack of exercise, genetic factors etc. Some of the signs of diabetes include frequent urination, fatigue, excessive hunger and thirst, blurry vision, slow healing wounds etc. The other complications of diabetes include nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy, heart disease and limb amputations. There is no cure for diabetes but can be controlled by proper diet and regular exercise. In this review we are going to discuss about diabetic foot ulcer (DFU), which is a major threat to diabetic patients. DFU is mainly caused due to vascular and neuropathic complications. The neuropathic complications lead to complete loss of sensation in foot and leg, this condition is known as diabetic neuropathy. The improper blood flow leads to ulceration. The diabetic foot ulcers are difficult to heal as the wound does not get enough nutrients or oxygen from blood, leading to the risk of lower limb amputation. Both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms play a vital role in DFU. Let us now see in detail about diabetic foot ulcer.