Airway Hyperresponsiveness (AHR) is one of the key features of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), where the airway sensitivity is increased. The research suggested that there is a relation between inflammatory state and severity of hyperresponsiveness of the airway, though the causative agents and consequences are different in asthma and COPD. However, before estimating hyperresponsiveness, there is a need to understand the consequences of airway inflammation, which are different in asthma and COPD. Over the past decades, there was an increased interest in unfold the multidimensional link between airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness. This raises the hope for the future in development of diagnosis and treatment options for AHR. This short note intends to summarize the clinical correlation between airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness and the significance of measurement of hyperresponsiveness.